idea number gives full details.     |    back to list of philosophers     |     expand these ideas

Ideas of PG, by Text

[British, b.1945, Creator of the database used on this website.]

1001BCE Db (lexicon)
01 p. Agathon: good
02 p. Aisthesis: perception, sensation, consciousness
03 p. Aitia / aition: cause, explanation
04 p. Akrasia: lack of control, weakness of will
05 p. Aletheia: truth
06 p. Anamnesis: recollection, remembrance
07 p. Ananke: necessity
08 p. Antikeimenon: object
09 p. Apatheia: unemotional
10 p. Apeiron: the unlimited, indefinite
11 p. Aphairesis: taking away, abstraction
12 p. Apodeixis: demonstration
13 p. Aporia: puzzle, question, anomaly
14 p. Arche: first principle, the basic
15 p. Arete: virtue, excellence
16 p. Chronismos: separation
17 p. Diairesis: division
18 p. Dialectic: dialectic, discussion
21 p. Dianoia: intellection [cf. Noesis]
22 p. Diaphora: difference
23 p. Dikaiosune: moral goodness, justice
24 p. Doxa: opinion, belief
25 p. Dunamis: faculty, potentiality, capacity
26 p. Eidos: form, idea
27 p. Elenchos: elenchus, interrogation
28 p. Empeiron: experience
31 p. Energeia: employment, actuality, power?
32 p. Enkrateia: control
33 p. Entelecheia: entelechy, having an end
34 p. Epagoge: induction, explanation
35 p. Episteme: knowledge, understanding
36 p. Epithumia: appetite
37 p. Ergon: function
38 p. Eristic: polemic, disputation
41 p. Eros: love
42 p. Eudaimonia: flourishing, happiness, fulfilment
43 p. Genos: type, genus
44 p. Hexis: state, habit
45 p. Horismos: definition
46 p. Hule: matter
47 p. Hupokeimenon: subject, underlying thing [cf. Tode ti]
48 p. Kalos / kalon: beauty, fineness, nobility
51 p. Kath' hauto: in virtue of itself, essentially
52 p. Kinesis: movement, process
53 p. Kosmos: order, universe
54 p. Logos: reason, account, word
55 p. Meson: the mean
56 p. Metechein: partaking, sharing
57 p. Mimesis: imitation, fine art
58 p. Morphe: form
59 p. Noesis: intellection, rational thought [cf. Dianoia]
61 p. Nomos: convention, law, custom
62 p. Nous: intuition, intellect, understanding
63 p. Orexis: desire
64 p. Ousia: substance, (primary) being, [see 'Prote ousia']
65 p. Pathos: emotion, affection, property
66 p. Phantasia: imagination
67 p. Philia: friendship
68 p. Philosophia: philosophy, love of wisdom
71 p. Phronesis: prudence, practical reason, common sense
72 p. Physis: nature
73 p. Praxis: action, activity
74 p. Prote ousia: primary being
75 p. Psuche: mind, soul, life
76 p. Sophia: wisdom
77 p. Sophrosune: moderation, self-control
78 p. Stoicheia: elements
81 p. Sullogismos: deduction, syllogism
82 p. Techne: skill, practical knowledge
83 p. Telos: purpose, end
84 p. Theoria: contemplation
85 p. Theos: god
86 p. Ti esti: what-something-is, essence
87 p. Timoria: vengeance, punishment
88 p. To ti en einai: essence, what-it-is-to-be
91 p. To ti estin: essence
92 p. Tode ti: this-such, subject of predication [cf. hupokeimenon]
2030 Db (chronology)
0001 p. 1000 (roughly): Upanishads written (in Sanskrit); religious and philosophical texts
0250 p. 750 (roughly): the Book of Genesis written by Hebrew writers
0415 p. 586: eclipse of the sun on the coast of modern Turkey was predicted by Thales of Miletus
0430 p. 570: Anaximander flourished in Miletus
0437 p. 563: the Buddha born in northern India
0460 p. 540: Lao Tzu wrote 'Tao Te Ching', the basis of Taoism
0471 p. 529: Pythagoras created his secretive community at Croton in Sicily
0500 p. 500: Heraclitus flourishes at Ephesus, in modern Turkey
0504 p. 496: Confucius travels widely, persuading rulers to be more moral
0528 p. 472: Empedocles persuades his city (Acragas in Sicily) to become a democracy
0550 p. 450 (roughly): Parmenides and Zeno visit Athens from Italy
0557 p. 445: Protagoras helps write laws for the new colony of Thurii
0564 p. 436 (roughly): Anaxagoras is tried for impiety, and expelled from Athens
0573 p. 427: Gorgias visited Athens as ambassador for Leontini
0601 p. 399: Socrates executed (with Plato absent through ill health)
0613 p. 387 (roughly): Plato returned to Athens, and founded the Academy
0613 p. 387 (roughly): Aristippus the Elder founder a hedonist school at Cyrene
0633 p. 367: the teenaged Aristotle came to study at the Academy
0640 p. 360 (roughly): Diogenes of Sinope lives in a barrel in central Athens
0653 p. 347: death of Plato
0657 p. 343: Aristotle becomes tutor to 13 year old Alexander (the Great)
0665 p. 335: Arisotle founded his school at the Lyceum in Athens
0670 p. 330 (roughly): Chuang Tzu wrote his Taoist book
0677 p. 323 (roughly): Euclid wrote 'Elements', summarising all of geometry
0678 p. 322: Aristotle retired to Chalcis, and died there
0693 p. 307 (roughly): Epicurus founded his school at the Garden in Athens
0699 p. 301 (roughly): Zeno of Citium founded Stoicism at the Stoa Poikile in Athens
0739 p. 261: Cleanthes replaced Zeno as head of the Stoa
0771 p. 229 (roughly): Chrysippus replaced Cleanthes has head of the Stoa
0843 p. 157 (roughly): Carneades became head of the Academy
0915 p. 85: most philosophical activity moves to Alexandria
0922 p. 78: Cicero visited the stoic school on Rhodes
0940 p. 60 (roughly): Lucretius wrote his Latin poem on epicureanism
1065 p. 65: Seneca forced to commit suicide by Nero
1080 p. 80: the discourses of the stoic Epictetus are written down
1170 p. 170 (roughly): Marcus Aurelius wrote his private stoic meditations
1200 p. -200 (roughly): Sextus Empiricus wrote a series of books on scepticism
1263 p. 263: Porphyry began to study with Plotinus in Rome
1310 p. 310: Christianity became the official religion of the Roman empire
1387 p. 387: Ambrose converts Augustine to Christianity
1523 p. 523: Boethius imprisoned at Pavia, and begins to write
1529 p. 529: the emperor Justinian closes all the philosophy schools in Athens
1622 p. 622 (roughly): Mohammed writes the Koran
1642 p. 642: Arabs close the philosophy schools in Alexandria
1910 p. 910 (roughly): Al-Farabi wrote Arabic commentaries on Aristotle
2015 p. 1015 (roughly): Ibn Sina (Avicenna) writes a book on Aristotle
2090 p. 1090: Anselm publishes his proof of the existence of God
2115 p. 1115: Abelard is the chief logic teacher in Paris
2166 p. 1166: Ibn Rushd (Averroes) wrote extensive commentaries on Aristotle
2266 p. 1266: Aquinas began writing 'Summa Theologica'
2280 p. 1280: after his death, the teaching of Aquinas becomes official Dominican doctrine
2328 p. 1328: William of Ockham decides the Pope is a heretic, and moves to Munich
2347 p. 1347: the Church persecutes philosophical heresies
2470 p. 1470: Marsilio Ficino founds a Platonic Academy in Florence
2513 p. 1513: Machiavelli wrote 'The Prince'
2543 p. 1543: Copernicus publishes his heliocentric view of the solar system
2580 p. 1580: Montaigne publishes his essays
2600 p. 1600: Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake in Rome
2619 p. 1619: Descartes's famous day of meditation inside a stove
2620 p. 1620: Bacon publishes 'Novum Organum'
2633 p. 1633: Galileo convicted of heresy by the Inquisition
2641 p. 1641: Descartes publishes his 'Meditations'
2650 p. 1650: death of Descartes, in Stockholm
2651 p. 1651: Hobbes publishes 'Leviathan'
2662 p. 1662: the Port Royal Logic is published
2665 p. 1665: Spinoza writes his 'Ethics'
2676 p. 1676: Leibniz settled as librarian to the Duke of Brunswick
2687 p. 1687: Newton publishes his 'Principia Mathematica'
2690 p. 1690: Locke publishes his 'Essay'
2697 p. 1697: Bayle publishes his 'Dictionary'
2713 p. 1713: Berkeley publishes his 'Three Dialogues'
2734 p. 1734: Voltaire publishes his 'Philosophical Letters'
2739 p. 1739: Hume publishes his 'Treatise'
2762 p. 1762: Rousseau publishes his 'Social Contract'
2781 p. 1781: Kant publishes his 'Critique of Pure Reason'
2785 p. 1785: Reid publishes his essays defending common sense
2789 p. 1798: the French Revolution
2807 p. 1807: Hegel publishes his 'Phenomenology of Spirit'
2818 p. 1818: Schopenhauer publishes his 'World as Will and Idea'
2840 p. 1840: Kierkegaard is writing extensively in Copenhagen
2843 p. 1843: Mill publishes his 'System of Logic'
2848 p. 1848: Marx and Engels publis the Communist Manifesto
2859 p. 1859: Darwin publishes his 'Origin of the Species'
2861 p. 1861: Mill publishes 'Utilitarianism'
2867 p. 1867: Marx begins publishing 'Das Kapital'
2879 p. 1879: Peirce taught for five years at Johns Hopkins University
2879 p. 1879: Frege invents predicate logic
2882 p. 1892: Frege's essay 'Sense and Reference'
2884 p. 1884: Frege publishes his 'Foundations of Arithmetic'
2885 p. 1885: Nietzsche completed 'Thus Spake Zarathustra'
2888 p. 1888: Dedekind publishes axioms for arithmetic
2890 p. 1890: James published 'Principles of Psychology'
2895 p. 1895 (roughly): Freud developed theories of the unconscious
2900 p. 1900: Husserl began developing Phenomenology
2903 p. 1903: Moore published 'Principia Ethica'
2904 p. 1904: Dewey became professor at Columbia University
2908 p. 1908: Zermelo publishes axioms for set theory
2910 p. 1910: Russell and Whitehead begin publishing 'Principia Mathematica'
2912 p. 1912: Russell meets Wittgenstein in Cambridge
2921 p. 1921: Wittgenstein's 'Tractatus' published
2927 p. 1927: Heidegger's 'Being and Time' published
2930 p. 1930: Frank Ramsey dies at 27
2931 p. 1931: Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems
2933 p. 1933: Tarski's theory of truth
2942 p. 1942: Camus published 'The Myth of Sisyphus'
2943 p. 1943: Sartre's 'Being and Nothingness'
2945 p. 1945: Merleau-Ponty's 'Phenomenology of Perception'
2947 p. 1947: Carnap published 'Meaning and Necessity'
2950 p. 1950: Quine's essay 'Two Dogmas of Empiricism'
2953 p. 1953: Wittgenstein's 'Philosophical Investigations'
2956 p. 1956: Place proposed mind-brain identity
2962 p. 1962: Kuhn's 'Structure of Scientific Revolutions'
2967 p. 1967: Putnam proposed functionalism of the mind
2971 p. 1971: Rawls's 'A Theory of Justice'
2972 p. 1972: Kripke publishes 'Naming and Necessity'
2975 p. 1975: Putnam published his Twin Earth example
2975 p. 1975: Singer publishes 'Animal Rights'
2986 p. 1986: David Lewis publishes 'On the Plurality of Worlds'
2031 Db (ideas)
p. Note that "is" can assert existence, or predication, or identity, or classification
p. Fallacies are errors in reasoning, 'formal' if a clear rule is breached, and 'informal' if more general
p. Question-begging assumes the proposition which is being challenged
p. What is true of a set is also true of its members
p. The Ad Hominem Fallacy criticises the speaker rather than the argument
p. Minimal theories of truth avoid ontological commitment to such things as 'facts' or 'reality'
p. Monty Hall Dilemma: do you abandon your preference after Monty eliminates one of the rivals?
p. If my team is losing 3-1, I have synthetic a priori knowledge that they need two goals for a draw
p. If reality is just what we perceive, we would have no need for a sixth sense
p. Maybe a mollusc's brain events for pain ARE of the same type (broadly) as a human's
p. Maybe a frog's brain events for fear are functionally like ours, but not phenomenally
p. Life is Movement, Respiration, Sensation, Nutrition, Excretion, Reproduction, Growth (MRS NERG)
p. Utilitarianism seems to justify the discreet murder of unhappy people
p. How could God know there wasn't an unknown force controlling his 'free' will?
p. An omniscient being couldn't know it was omniscient, as that requires information from beyond its scope of knowledge