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Ideas of Arthur Schopenhauer, by Text

[German, 1788 - 1860, Born in Danzig. Educated in France and Britain. Taught at the University of Berlin. Retired in 1831, and settled in Frankfurt.]

1813 Abstract of 'The Fourfold Root'
Ch.I p.268 'There is nothing without a reason why it should be rather than not be' (a generalisation of 'Why?')
Ch.IV p.270 Time may be defined as the possibility of mutually exclusive conditions of the same thing
Ch.IV p.271 All understanding is an immediate apprehension of the causal relation
Ch.VII p.274 What we know in ourselves is not a knower but a will
Ch.VIII p.274 All necessity arises from causation, which is conditioned; there is no absolute or unconditioned necessity
p.211-2 p.51 The knot of the world is the use of 'I' to refer to both willing and knowing
1813 Fourfold Root of Princ of Sufficient Reason
p.20 Necessity is physical, logical, mathematical or moral [Janaway]
p.21 For Schopenhauer, material things would not exist without the mind [Janaway]
p.73 No need for a priori categories, since sufficient reason shows the interrelations [Lewis,PB]
p.74 Concepts are abstracted from perceptions [Lewis,PB]
14 p.32-3 p.73 Sufficient Reason can't be proved, because all proof presupposes it
16 p.41-2 p.73 Object for a subject and representation are the same thing
43 p.214 p.72 The four explanations: objects by causes, concepts by ground, maths by spacetime, ethics by motive [Lewis,PB]
p.214 p.26 Motivation is causality seen from within
1819 The World as Will and Idea
p.70 Schopenhauer is a chief proponent of aesthetic experience as 'disinterested' [Janaway]
p.94 Schopenhauer can't use force/energy instead of 'will', because he is not a materialist [Lewis,PB]
p.96 Schopenhauer, unlike other idealists, says reality is irrational [Lewis,PB]
p.149 Schopenhauer was caught in Christian ideals, because he didn't deify his 'will' [Nietzsche]
p.184 Will casts aside each of its temporary fulfilments, so human life has no ultimate aim [Scruton]
p.620 The will-less contemplation of art brings a liberation from selfhood [Gardner]
I 001 p.3 The world only exists in relation to something else, as an idea of the one who conceives it
I 004 p.8 All perception is intellectual
I 004 p.9 Direct feeling of the senses are merely data; perception of the world comes with understanding causes
I 013 p.156 Absurdity is incongruity between correct and false points of view
I 105 p.93 We know reality because we know our own bodies and actions
I 110 p.37 Only the will is thing-in-itself, seen both in blind nature and in human action
I 125 p.40 I know both aspects of my body, as representation, and as will
I 196 p.71 We can never attain happiness while our will is pursuing desires
I 201-7 p.116 The Sublime fights for will-less knowing, when faced with a beautiful threat to humanity [Lewis,PB]
I 271 p.88 We should no more expect ethical theory to produce good people than aesthetics to produce artists
I 417 App p.63 Kant rightly separates appearance and thing-in-itself
I 428 p.39 Metaphysics must understand the world thoroughly, as a principal source of knowledge
I Supp p.12 Descartes found the true beginning of philosophy with the Cogito, in the consciousness of the individual
I Supp p.20 A consciousness without an object is no consciousness
I Supp p.20 The knowing subject and the crude matter of the world are both in themselves unknowable
I.Supp p.22 Matter and intellect are inseparable correlatives which only exist relatively, and for each other
II p.111 Schopenhauer emphasises Ideas in art, unlike most romantics [Lewis,PB]
II 018 p.32 Every true act of will is also at once and without exception a movement of the body
II 023 p.45 Man's actions are not free, because they follow strictly from impact of motive on character
II 027 p.69 Philosophy considers only the universal, in nature as everywhere else
II 029 p.85 Happiness is the swift movement from desire to satisfaction, and then again on to desire
II 210 p.59 We have hidden and unadmitted desires and fears, suppressed because of vanity
II 605 p.110 The only aim of our existence is to grasp that non-existence would be better
II Supp p.93 If we were essentially intellect rather than will, our moral worth would depend on imagined motives
III 41 p.133 Man is more beautiful than anything else, and the loftiest purpose of art is to reveal his nature
IV.54 p.179 It is as perverse to resent our individuality being replaced by others, as to resent the body renewing itself
IV.55 p.190 We all regard ourselves a priori as free, but see from experience that character and motive compel us
IV.59 p.204 Most people would probably choose non-existence at the end of their life, rather than relive the whole thing
IV.59 p.206 Christianity is a pessimistic religion, in which the world is equated with evil
IV.60 p.209 The essence of nature is the will to life itself
IV.63 p.221 Religion is the mythical clothing of the truth which is inaccessible to the crude human intellect
IV.65 p.224 Every good is essentially relative, for it has its essential nature only in its relation to a desiring will
IV.65 p.225 A principal pleasure of the beautiful is that it momentarily silences the will
IV.66 p.230 Only self-love can motivate morality, but that also makes it worthless
IV.66 p.230 Virtue must spring from an intuitive recognition that other people are essentially like us
IV.66 p.234 Altruistic people make less distinction than usual between themselves and others
IV.68 p.241 Everyone is conscious of all philosophical truths, but philosophers bring them to conceptual awareness
1841 On the Basis of Morality
p.192 p.98 Man's three basic ethical incentives are egoism, malice and compassion
p.83 p.90 Reason can be vicious, and great crimes have to be rational
p.96 p.92 Philosophy treats animals as exploitable things, ignoring the significance of their lives
1841 On the Freedom of the Will
p.93-4 p.95 We clearly feel responsible for our deeds, because we are quite certain that we did them
1851 Parerga and Paralipomena
I:1 p.117 Metaphysics studies the inexplicable ends of explanation
I:1 p.117 All knowledge and explanation rests on the inexplicable
I:12 p.119 A priori propositions are those we could never be seriously motivated to challenge
I:9 p.118 All of our concepts are borrowed from perceptual knowledge
II:415 p.71 Aesthetics concerns how we can take pleasure in an object, with no reference to the will
III:37 p.122 We don't control our own thinking
III:40 p.123 Half our thinking is unconscious, and we reach conclusions while unaware of premises
III:43 p.125 Knowledge is not power! Ignorant people possess supreme authority
III:50 p.126 Boredom is only felt by those clever enough to need activity
IV:61 p.55 For me the objective thing-in-itself is the will
IX:123 p.149 The state only exists to defend citizens, from exterior threats, and from one another
IX:125 p.150 Poverty and slavery are virtually two words for the same thing
IX:127 p.152 The freedom of the press to sell poison outweighs its usefulness
VIII:110 p.133 Buddhists wisely start with the cardinal vices
VIII:110 p.134 The five Chinese virtues: pity, justice, politeness, wisdom, honesty
VIII:114 p.138 Man is essentially a dreadful wild animal
VIII:118 p.144 A man's character can be learned from a single characteristic action
XI:146 p.53 Human life is a mistake, shown by boredom, which is direct awareness of the fact
XII:149 p.42 Pleasure is weaker, and pain stronger, than we expect
XII:156 p.47 Would humanity still exist if sex wasn't both desired and pleasurable?
XII:156 p.48 The Creator created the possibilities for worlds, so should have made a better one than this possible
XIII:158 p.79 If suicide was quick and easy, most people would have done it by now
XIX:205 p.155 The beautiful is a perception of Plato's Forms, which eliminates the will
XV:174 p.95 Only religion introduces serious issues to uneducated people
1855 Manuscript remains
I p.137 p.90 As the subject of willing I am wretched, but absorption in knowledge is bliss
I p.47 p.66 To deduce morality from reason is blasphemy, because it is holy, and far above reason
II p.241-3 p.68 Philosophers can't be religious, and don't need to be; philosophy is perilous but free