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Ideas of Stoic school, by Text

[, fl. 200 BCE, General ideas attributed to the school (not individuals), c.300-40 BCE]

200BCE works
p.11 Stoics study canons, criteria and definitions, in order to find the truth
p.11 Dialectics is mastery of question and answer form
p.11 Stoics like syllogisms, for showing what is demonstrative, which corrects opinions
p.11 Rhetoric has three types, four modes, and four sections
p.11 Demonstration derives what is less clear from what is clear
p.12 Knowledge is a secure grasp of presentations which cannot be reversed by argument
p.12 Non-graspable presentations are from what doesn't exist, or are not clear and distinct
p.12 Dialectic is a virtue which contains other virtues
p.13 There are non-sensible presentations, which come to us through the intellect
p.13 Our conceptions arise from experience, similarity, analogy, transposition, composition and opposition
p.16 Predicates are incomplete 'lekta'
p.18 The contradictory of a contradictory is an affirmation
p.19 A proposition is possible if it is true when nothing stops it being true
p.19 Conditionals are false if the falsehood of the conclusion does not conflict with the antecedent
p.23 Stoic perception is a presentation to which one voluntarily assents
p.48 Stoics say we are born like a blank sheet of paper; the first concepts on it are sensations
p.48 Concepts are intellectual phantasms
p.48 For Stoics, obligations are determined by social role
p.49 Stoics do not despise external goods, but subject them to reason, and not to desire
p.50 All our concepts come from experience, directly, or by expansion, reduction or compounding
p.51 Stoic physics concerns cosmos, elements and causes (with six detailed divisions)
p.52 Early Stoics called the logos 'god', meaning not a being, but the principle of the universe
p.57 Eight parts of the soul: five senses, seeds, speech and reason
p.73 The free will problem was invented by the Stoics
p.85 No wise man has yet been discovered
p.86 Platonic Forms are just our thoughts
p.89 The truth bearers are said to be the signified, or the signifier, or the meaning of the signifier
p.91 Stoics have four primary categories: substrates, qualities, dispositions, relative dispositions
p.96 How is separateness possible, if separated things are always said to be united?
p.96 How is divisibility possible, if stoics say things remain united when they are divided?
p.96 The cosmos is regularly consumed and reorganised by the primary fire
p.98 Virtuous souls endure till the end, foolish souls for a short time, animal souls not at all
p.112 Ethics studies impulse, good, passion, virtue, goals, value, action, appropriateness, encouragement
p.113 Stoics say pleasure is at most a byproduct of finding what is suitable for us
p.116 Honour is just, courageous, orderly or knowledgeable. It is praiseworthy, or functions well
p.116 Final goods: confidence, prudence, freedom, enjoyment and no pain, good spirits, virtue
p.116 Stoics said that correct judgement needs an invincible criterion of truth
p.118 The appraiser's value is what is set by someone experienced in the facts
p.118 Prime values apply to the life in agreement; useful values apply to the natural life
p.118 An appropriate action is one that can be defended, perhaps by its consistency.
p.119 Falsehoods corrupt a mind, producing passions and instability
p.120 Rapture is a breakdown of virtue
p.120 Virtuous men do not feel sexual desire, which merely focuses on physical beauty
p.122 Wise men are never astonished at things which other people take to be wonders
p.123 Stoics say matter has qualities, and substance underlies it, with no form or qualities
p.123 There are four Stoic categories; substrates, qualities, dispositions, and relative dispositions
p.124 The best government blends democracy, monarchy and aristocracy
p.124 Suicide is reasonable, for one's country or friends, or because of very bad health
p.124 Stoics say god is matter, or an inseparable quality of it, or is the power within it
p.125 The Stoics rejected entirely the high value that had been placed on contemplation
p.126 Stoics say virtuous souls last till everything ends in fire, but foolish ones fade away
p.126 The health of the soul is a good blend of beliefs
p.128 Stoic morality says that one's own happiness will lead to impartiality
p.128 Crafts like music and letters are virtuous conditions, and they accord with virtue
p.133 Happiness is the end and goal, achieved by living virtuously, in agreement, and according to nature
p.140 Wise men participate in politics, especially if it shows moral progress
p.145 True philosophising is not memorising ideas, but living by them
p.149 Two sorts of opinion: either poorly grounded belief, or weak belief
p.149 Stoics classify passions according to the opinion of good and bad which they imply.
p.159 Stoic 'nature' is deterministic, physical and teleological
p.162 The goal is to live consistently with the constitution of a human being
p.172 Stoics say wholes are more than parts, but entirely consist of parts
p.238 At birth the soul is a blank sheet ready to be written on
p.245 Stoics use 'kalon' (beautiful) as a synonym for 'agathon' (good)
p.270 For Stoics the true self is defined by what I can be master of
p.276 For Stoics knowledge is an assertion which never deviates from the truth
p.289 If humans are citizens of the world (not just a state) then virtue is all good human habits
p.302 Stoics originated the concept of natural law, as agreed correct reasoning
p.306 Stoics say a wise man will commit suicide if he has a good enough reason
p.307 Stoics favour a mixture of democracy, monarchy and aristocracy