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Ideas of Arthur Schopenhauer, by Text

[German, 1788 - 1860, Born in Danzig. Educated in France and Britain. Taught at the University of Berlin. Retired in 1831, and settled in Frankfurt.]

1813 Abstract of 'The Fourfold Root'
Ch.I p.268 'There is nothing without a reason why it should be rather than not be' (a generalisation of 'Why?')
Ch.IV p.270 Time may be defined as the possibility of mutually exclusive conditions of the same thing
Ch.IV p.271 All understanding is an immediate apprehension of the causal relation
Ch.VII p.274 What we know in ourselves is not a knower but a will
Ch.VIII p.274 All necessity arises from causation, which is conditioned; there is no absolute or unconditioned necessity
1819 The World as Will and Idea
p.149 Schopenhauer was caught in Christian ideals, because he didn't deify his 'will'
p.184 Will casts aside each of its temporary fulfilments, so human life has no ultimate aim
p.620 The will-less contemplation of art brings a liberation from selfhood
I.1 p.3 The world only exists in relation to something else, as an idea of the one who conceives it
I.13 p.156 Absurdity is incongruity between correct and false points of view
I.4 p.8 All perception is intellectual
I.4 p.9 Direct feeling of the senses are merely data; perception of the world comes with understanding causes
I.Supp p.12 Descartes found the true beginning of philosophy with the Cogito, in the consciousness of the individual
I.Supp p.20 The knowing subject and the crude matter of the world are both in themselves unknowable
I.Supp p.20 A consciousness without an object is no consciousness
I.Supp p.22 Matter and intellect are inseparable correlatives which only exist relatively, and for each other
II.18 p.32 Every true act of will is also at once and without exception a movement of the body
II.23 p.45 Man's actions are not free, because they follow strictly from impact of motive on character
II.27 p.69 Philosophy considers only the universal, in nature as everywhere else
II.29 p.85 Happiness is the swift movement from desire to satisfaction, and then again on to desire
II.Supp p.93 If we were essentially intellect rather than will, our moral worth would depend on imagined motives
III.41 p.133 Man is more beautiful than anything else, and the loftiest purpose of art is to reveal his nature
IV.54 p.179 It is as perverse to resent our individuality being replaced by others, as to resent the body renewing itself
IV.55 p.190 We all regard ourselves a priori as free, but see from experience that character and motive compel us
IV.59 p.204 Most people would probably choose non-existence at the end of their life, rather than relive the whole thing
IV.59 p.206 Christianity is a pessimistic religion, in which the world is equated with evil
IV.60 p.209 The essence of nature is the will to life itself
IV.63 p.221 Religion is the mythical clothing of the truth which is inaccessible to the crude human intellect
IV.65 p.224 Every good is essentially relative, for it has its essential nature only in its relation to a desiring will
IV.65 p.225 A principal pleasure of the beautiful is that it momentarily silences the will
IV.66 p.230 Only self-love can motivate morality, but that also makes it worthless
IV.66 p.230 Virtue must spring from an intuitive recognition that other people are essentially like us
IV.66 p.234 Altruistic people make less distinction than usual between themselves and others
IV.68 p.241 Everyone is conscious of all philosophical truths, but philosophers bring them to conceptual awareness