Ideas of Carneades, by Theme

[Greek, 214 - 129 BCE, Born at Cyrene, in North Africa. Head of the New Academy in Athens. Wrote nothing, but Clitomachus preserved his arguments.]

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1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 3. Philosophy Defined
Carneades' pinnacles of philosophy are the basis of knowledge (the criterion of truth) and the end of appetite (good) [Cicero]
3. Truth / B. Truthmakers / 10. Making Future Truths
Future events are true if one day we will say 'this event is happening now'
We say future things are true that will possess actuality at some following time [Cicero]
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 6. Identity between Objects
Carneades denied the transitivity of identity [Chisholm]
10. Modality / A. Necessity / 3. Types of Necessity
Carneades distinguished logical from causal necessity, when talking of future events [Long]
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 2. Sources of Free Will
Voluntary motion is intrinsically within our power, and this power is its cause [Cicero]
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 6. Determinism / a. Determinism
Some actions are within our power; determinism needs prior causes for everything - so it is false [Cicero]
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 6. Determinism / b. Fate
Even Apollo can only foretell the future when it is naturally necessary [Cicero]
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / f. Self interest
Carneades said that after a shipwreck a wise man would seize the only plank by force [Tuck]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 1. Social Justice
People change laws for advantage; either there is no justice, or it is a form of self-injury [Lactantius]