Ideas of Chrysippus, by Theme

[Greek, 280 - 207 BCE, Born at Soli in Cilicia. A pupil of Arcesilaus. Head of the Stoic school in Athens.]

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 1. Nature of Wisdom
Wisdom for one instant is as good as wisdom for eternity
1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 2. Wise People
Wise men should try to participate in politics, since they are a good influence
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 4. Divisions of Philosophy
Three branches of philosophy: first logic, second ethics, third physics (which ends with theology)
2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 2. Sufficient Reason
Chrysippus said the uncaused is non-existent
3. Truth / C. Correspondence Truth / 2. Correspondence to Facts
Graspable presentations are criteria of facts, and are molded according to their objects
3. Truth / C. Correspondence Truth / 3. Correspondence Truth critique
How could you ever know that the presentation is similar to the object?
4. Formal Logic / B. Propositional Logic PL / 1. Propositional Logic
Stoic propositional logic is like chemistry - how atoms make molecules, not the innards of atoms
4. Formal Logic / B. Propositional Logic PL / 2. Tools of Propositional Logic / e. Axioms of PL
Chrysippus have five obvious 'indemonstrables' of reasoning
5. Theory of Logic / B. Logical Consequence / 5. Modus Ponens
Modus ponens is one of five inference rules identified by the Stoics
5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 2. Excluded Middle
Every proposition is either true or false
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 8. Criterion for Existence
Chrysippus says action is the criterion for existence, which must be physical
7. Existence / E. Categories / 3. Proposed Categories
Stoics categories are Substrate, Quality, Disposition, and Relation
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 3. Unity Problems / b. Cat and its tail
Dion and Theon coexist, but Theon lacks a foot. If Dion loses a foot, he ousts Theon?
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 2. Objects that Change
Change of matter doesn't destroy identity - in Dion and Theon change is a condition of identity
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 7. Animal Minds
Dogs show reason in decisions made by elimination
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 4. For Free Will
Chrysippus allows evil to say it is fated, or even that it is rational and natural
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 5. Against Free Will
A swerve in the atoms would be unnatural, like scales settling differently for no reason
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 6. Determinism / a. Determinism
Chrysippus is wrong to believe in non-occurring future possibilities if he is a fatalist
Everything is fated, either by continuous causes or by a supreme rational principle
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 6. Determinism / b. Fate
Fate is an eternal and fixed chain of causal events
The Lazy Argument responds to fate with 'why bother?', but the bothering is also fated
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 7. Compatibilism
Destiny is only a predisposing cause, not a sufficient cause
19. Language / D. Propositions / 1. Propositions
A proposition is what can be asserted or denied on its own
20. Action / B. Preliminaries of Action / 2. Willed Action / d. Weakness of will
Passions are judgements; greed thinks money is honorable, and likewise drinking and lust
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 7. Art and Morality
Stoics say that beauty and goodness are equivalent and linked
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / f. Ultimate value
Live in agreement, according to experience of natural events
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / d. Good as virtue
Living happily is nothing but living virtuously
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / f. Good as pleasure
Pleasure is not the good, because there are disgraceful pleasures
Justice can be preserved if pleasure is a good, but not if it is the goal
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 3. Pleasure / c. Value of pleasure
There are shameful pleasures, and nothing shameful is good, so pleasure is not a good
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / g. Moral responsibility
Fate initiates general causes, but individual wills and characters dictate what we do
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / e. Human nature
Human purpose is to contemplate and imitate the cosmos
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / j. Ethics by convention
Stoics say justice is a part of nature, not just an invented principle
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / k. Ethics from nature
Only nature is available to guide action and virtue
23. Ethics / A. Egoism / 2. Hedonism
People need nothing except corn and water
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / a. Nature of virtue
All virtue is good, but not always praised (as in not lusting after someone ugly)
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / b. Basis of virtue
Chrysippus says virtue can be lost (though Cleanthes says it is too secure for that)
Chrysippus says nothing is blameworthy, as everything conforms with the best nature
24. Applied Ethics / A. Decision Conflicts / 5. Omissions
The highest degree of morality performs all that is appropriate, omitting nothing
24. Applied Ethics / B. Moral Rights / 3. Animal Rights
Justice is irrelevant to animals, because they are too unlike us
We don't have obligations to animals as they aren't like us
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / b. The natural life
Rational animals begin uncorrupted, but externals and companions are bad influences
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 3. Anarchism
Diogenes masturbated in public, wishing he could get rid of hunger so easily
25. Society / E. State Functions / 1. The Law / b. Natural law
Justice, the law, and right reason are natural and not conventional
26. Natural Theory / A. Heart of Nature / 2. Natural Purpose
Covers are for shields, and sheaths for swords; likewise, all in the cosmos is for some other thing
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 4. Time / f. Presentism
The present does not exist, so our immediate experience is actually part past and part future
Time is continous and infinitely divisible, so there cannot be a wholly present time
The past and the future subsist, but only the present exists
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / e. Greek elements
Stoics say earth, air, fire and water are the primary elements
Fire is a separate element, not formed with others (as was previously believed)
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 3. Divine Perfections
Stoics say that God the creator is the perfection of all animals
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 5. Divine Morality / a. Divine morality
The origin of justice can only be in Zeus, and in nature
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 5. Divine Morality / d. God decrees morality
The source of all justice is Zeus and the universal nature
Stoics teach that law is identical with right reason, which is the will of Zeus
28. God / E. Attitudes to God / 1. Monotheism
Stoics teach that God is a unity, variously known as Mind, or Fate, or Jupiter
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 2. Soul
Death can't separate soul from body, because incorporeal soul can't unite with body