Ideas of Ludwig Feuerbach, by Theme

[German, 1804 - 1872, Born in Bavaria. Graduate of Heidelberg. Taught by Hegel. Lived quietly near Nuremberg.]

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1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 1. History of Philosophy
All philosophies presuppose their historical moment, and arise from it
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 3. Philosophy Defined
Philosophy is distinguished from other sciences by its complete lack of presuppositions
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 5. Aims of Philosophy / a. Philosophy as worldly
I don't study Plato for his own sake; the primary aim is always understanding
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 5. Aims of Philosophy / b. Philosophy as transcendent
Only that which can be an object of religion is an object of philosophy
1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 4. Ordinary Language
Philosophy should not focus on names, but on the determined nature of things
1. Philosophy / H. Continental Philosophy / 1. Continental Philosophy
Modern philosophy begins with Descartes' abstraction from sensation and matter
Empiricism is right about ideas, but forgets man himself as one of our objects
2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 1. Laws of Thought
The laws of reality are also the laws of thought
2. Reason / C. Styles of Reason / 1. Dialectic
A dialectician has to be his own opponent
Each proposition has an antithesis, and truth exists as its refutation
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 3. Value of Truth
Truth forges an impersonal unity between people
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / a. Nature of Being
Absolute thought remains in another world from being
Being is what is undetermined, and hence indistinguishable
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / f. Primary being
Being posits essence, and my essence is my being
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / g. Particular being
Particularity belongs to being, whereas generality belongs to thought
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / h. Dasein (being human)
The only true being is of the senses, perception, feeling and love
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 4. The Absolute
The Absolute is the 'and' which unites 'spirit and nature'
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 10. Ontological Commitment / e. Ontological commitment problems
To our consciousness it is language which looks unreal
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 5. The Cogito
Descartes transformed 'God is thinkable, so he exists' into 'I think, so I exist'
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 3. Idealism
Consciousness is absolute reality, and everything exists through consciousness
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 4. Solipsism
Ideas arise through communication, and reason is reached through community
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 6. Inference in Perception
In man the lowest senses of smell and taste elevate themselves to intellectual acts
16. Persons / D. Continuity of the Self / 7. Self and Thinking
For Descartes a person's essence is the mind because objects are perceived by mind, not senses
18. Thought / A. Modes of Thought / 6. Rationality
When absorbed in deep reflection, is your reason in control, or is it you?
18. Thought / E. Abstraction / 1. Abstract Thought
The new philosophy thinks of the concrete in a concrete (not a abstract) manner
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / c. Love
If you love nothing, it doesn't matter whether something exists or not
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / b. Types of good
Reason, love and will are the highest perfections and essence of man - the purpose of his life
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / d. Biological ethics
Plotinus was ashamed to have a body
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / i. Absolute virtues
Egoism is the only evil, love the only good; genuine love produces all the other virtues
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / a. Human distinctiveness
Man is not a particular being, like animals, but a universal being
The essence of man is in community, but with distinct individuals
27. Natural Reality / F. Biology / 5. Species
Consciousness is said to distinguish man from animals - consciousness of his own species
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 2. Divine Nature
The nature of God is an expression of human nature
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 5. Divine Morality / b. Euthyphro question
A God needs justice, kindness and wisdom, but those concepts don't depend on the concept of God
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 7. God Reflecting Humanity
If God is only an object for man, then only the essence of man is revealed in God
God is for us a mere empty idea, which we fill with our own ego and essence
God is what man would like to be
28. God / C. Proofs of Reason / 1. Ontological Proof
God's existence cannot be separated from essence and concept, which can only be thought as existing
28. God / E. Attitudes to God / 4. Atheism
If love, goodness and personality are human, the God who is their source is anthropomorphic
29. Religion / A. Religious Thought / 1. Religious Belief
Absolute idealism is the realized divine mind of Leibnizian theism
Today's atheism will tomorrow become a religion
Religion is the consciousness of the infinite
29. Religion / C. Monotheistic Religion / 4. Christianity / a. Christianity
Catholicism concerns God in himself, Protestantism what God is for man