Ideas of Martin Kusch, by Theme

[British, fl. 2002, Professor of Philosophy and Sociology of Science at the University of Cambridge.]

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3. Truth / C. Correspondence Truth / 1. Correspondence Truth
Correspondence could be with other beliefs, rather than external facts
3. Truth / F. Semantic Truth / 1. Tarski's Truth / a. Tarski's truth definition
Tarskians distinguish truth from falsehood by relations between members of sets
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 4. Belief / a. Beliefs
We can have knowledge without belief, if others credit us with knowledge
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 4. Solipsism
Methodological Solipsism assumes all ideas could be derived from one mind
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 4. Foundationalism / f. Foundationalism critique
Foundations seem utterly private, even from oneself at a later time
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 5. Coherentism / a. Coherence as justification
Testimony is reliable if it coheres with evidence for a belief, and with other beliefs
The coherentist restricts the space of reasons to the realm of beliefs
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 5. Coherentism / c. Coherentism critique
Individualistic coherentism lacks access to all of my beliefs, or critical judgement of my assessment
Individual coherentism cannot generate the necessary normativity
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 2. Causal Justification
Cultures decide causal routes, and they can be critically assessed
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 3. Reliabilism / a. Reliable knowledge
Process reliabilism has been called 'virtue epistemology', resting on perception, memory, reason
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 6. Contextual Justification / a. Contextualism
Justification depends on the audience and one's social role
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 7. Testimony
Testimony does not just transmit knowledge between individuals - it actually generates knowledge
Some want to reduce testimony to foundations of perceptions, memories and inferences
Powerless people are assumed to be unreliable, even about their own lives
Testimony is an area in which epistemology meets ethics
Testimony won't reduce to perception, if perception depends on social concepts and categories
A foundation is what is intelligible, hence from a rational source, and tending towards truth
Vindicating testimony is an expression of individualism
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 8. Social Justification
Communitarian Epistemology says 'knowledge' is a social status granted to groups of people
Private justification is justification to imagined other people
Myths about lonely genius are based on epistemological individualism
16. Persons / A. Concept of a Person / 1. Existence of Persons
To be considered 'an individual' is performed by a society
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 1. Concepts / a. Nature of concepts
Our experience may be conceptual, but surely not the world itself?
19. Language / F. Communication / 1. Rhetoric
Often socialising people is the only way to persuade them
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 7. Communitarianism
Communitarianism in epistemology sees the community as the primary knower
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 6. Natural Kinds / g. Critique of kinds
Natural kinds are social institutions
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 2. Divine Nature
Omniscience is incoherent, since knowledge is a social concept