Ideas of Michael Tooley, by Theme

[Australian, fl. 1990, University of Western Australia, and then at the University of Colorado at Boulder.]

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26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 1. Causation / b. Types of cause
Causation distinctions: reductionism/realism; Humean/non-Humean states; observable/non-observable
Causation is either direct realism, Humean reduction, non-Humean reduction or theoretical realism
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 1. Causation / d. Naturalised causation
Reductionists can't explain accidents, uninstantiated laws, probabilities, or the existence of any laws
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 1. Causation / e. Direction of causation
We can only reduce the direction of causation to the direction of time if we are realist about the latter
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 2. Particular Causation / a. Observation of causation
Causation is directly observable in pressure on one's body, and in willed action
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 2. Particular Causation / e. Probabilistic causation
Quantum physics suggests that the basic laws of nature are probabilistic
Probabilist laws are compatible with effects always or never happening
The actual cause may not be the most efficacious one
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 3. General Causation / a. Constant conjunction
In counterfactual worlds there are laws with no instances, so laws aren't supervenient on actuality
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 3. General Causation / b. Nomological causation
Causation is a concept of a relation the same in all worlds, so it can't be a physical process
Explaining causation in terms of laws can't explain the direction of causation