Ideas of Zeno (Citium), by Theme

[Greek, 334 - 262 BCE, Born at Citium, Cyprus. Taught by Polemo. Dissatisfied with other Athenian schools, founded the Stoics, meeting in the Stoa Poikile.]

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1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 1. Philosophy
When shown seven versions of the mowing argument, he paid twice the asking price for them
3. Truth / H. Deflationary Truth / 3. Minimalist Truth
Someone who says 'it is day' proposes it is day, and it is true if it is day
7. Existence / E. Categories / 3. Proposed Categories
There are four Stoic categories; substrates, qualities, dispositions, and relative dispositions
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 2. Substance / a. Substance
Stoics say matter has qualities, and substance underlies it, with no form or qualities
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 3. Innate Knowledge / c. Tabula rasa
At birth the soul is a blank sheet ready to be written on
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 4. Foundationalism / a. Foundationalism
Stoics said that correct judgement needs an invincible criterion of truth
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 4. Tracking the Facts
For Stoics knowledge is an assertion which never deviates from the truth
16. Persons / B. Concept of the Self / 2. Internal Properties
For Stoics the true self is defined by what I can be master of
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 1. Free Will / c. Free will critique
The free will problem was invented by the Stoics
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 2. Free Will Theories / a. Fate
When a slave said 'It was fated that I should steal', Zeno replied 'Yes, and that you should be beaten'
18. Thought / A. Modes of Thought / 3. Emotions
Stoics classify passions according to the opinion of good and bad which they imply.
19. Language / A. Nature of Meaning / 7. Meaning Holism / a. Sentence meaning
A sentence always has signification, but a word by itself never does
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 10. Art and Morality
Stoics use 'kalon' (beautiful) as a synonym for 'agathon' (good)
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / b. Altruism
Stoic morality says that one's own happiness will lead to impartiality
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / a. Nature of virtue
If humans are citizens of the world (not just a state) then virtue is all good human habits
Zeno saw virtue as a splendid state, not just a source of splendid action
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / b. Living naturally
Since we are essentially rational animals, living according to reason is living according to nature
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / a. Virtues
Zeno says there are four main virtues, which are inseparable but distinct
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / g. Contemplation
The Stoics rejected entirely the high value that had been placed on contemplation
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 4. External Goods / a. External goods
Stoics do not despise external goods, but subject them to reason, and not to desire
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 2. Duty
For Stoics, obligations are determined by social role
24. Applied Ethics / C. Death Issues / 4. Suicide
Stoics say a wise man will commit suicide if he has a good enough reason
25. Society / B. The State / 3. Constitutions
Stoics favour a mixture of democracy, monarchy and aristocracy
25. Society / E. State Functions / 2. The Law / b. Natural law
Stoics originated the concept of natural law, as agreed correct reasoning
26. Natural Theory / A. Heart of Nature / 1. Nature
Stoic 'nature' is deterministic, physical and teleological
27. Natural Reality / D. Cosmology / 1. Cosmology
Things are more perfect if they have reason; nothing is more perfect than the universe, so it must have reason
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 2. Divine Nature
Early Stoics called the logos 'god', meaning not a being, but the principle of the universe
28. God / D. Proofs of Evidence / 2. Teleological Proof
If tuneful flutes grew on olive trees, you would assume the olive had some knowledge of the flute
28. God / E. Attitudes to God / 2. Pantheism
Stoics say god is matter, or an inseparable quality of it, or is the power within it
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 1. Immortality
Stoics say virtuous souls last till everything ends in fire, but foolish ones fade away