Ideas of Heraclitus, by Theme

[Greek, c.540 - 480 BCE, Born and lived at Ephesus, on the coast of modern Turkey]

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 2. Wise People
Men who love wisdom must be inquirers into very many things indeed
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 2. Invocation to Philosophy
Everyone has the potential for self-knowledge and sound thinking
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 7. Despair over Philosophy
Reason is eternal, but men are foolish
2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 5. Opposites
Beautiful harmony comes from things that are in opposition to one another
A thing can have opposing tensions but be in harmony, like a lyre
5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 2. Excluded Middle
If everything is and isn't then everything is true, and a midway between true and false makes everything false [Aristotle]
8. Modes of Existence / C. Powers and Dispositions / 4. Powers as Essence
The hidden harmony is stronger than the visible
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 6. Nihilism about Objects
Everything gives way, and nothing stands fast
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 3. Unity Problems / e. Vague objects
A mixed drink separates if it is not stirred
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 8. Continuity of Rivers
You can bathe in the same river twice, but not in the same river stage [Quine]
It is not possible to step twice into the same river
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 13. No Identity over Time
If flux is continuous, then lack of change can't be a property, so everything changes in every possible way [Plato]
12. Knowledge Sources / C. Rationalism / 1. Rationalism
Senses are no use if the soul is corrupt
12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 4. Pro-Empiricism
When we sleep, reason closes down as the senses do [Sext.Empiricus]
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 1. Relativism
Sea water is life-giving for fish, but not for people
Donkeys prefer chaff to gold
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 3. Subjectivism
Health, feeding and rest are only made good by disease, hunger and weariness
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / e. Means and ends
If one does not hope, one will not find the unhoped-for, since nothing leads to it
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / f. Good as pleasure
If happiness is bodily pleasure, then oxen are happy when they have vetch to eat
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 3. Pleasure / f. Dangers of pleasure
It is hard to fight against emotion, but harder still to fight against pleasure
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / e. Ethical cognitivism
To God (though not to humans) all things are beautiful and good and just
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / h. Against ethics
Good and evil are the same thing
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / e. Character
For man character is destiny
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 2. Duty
Universal law is common to all, but most people live as if they have a private understanding
25. Society / E. State Functions / 1. The Law / a. Legal system
The people should fight for the law as if for their city-wall
26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 6. Early Matter Theories / c. Ancient elements
Heraclitus says that at some time everything becomes fire [Aristotle]
The sayings of Heraclitus are still correct, if we replace 'fire' with 'energy' [Heisenberg]
Heraclitus said sometimes everything becomes fire [Aristotle]
Heraclitus said fire could be transformed to create the other lower elements [Diog. Laertius]
26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 6. Early Matter Theories / g. The One
Reason tells us that all things are one
26. Natural Theory / B. Natural Kinds / 4. Source of Kinds
Logos is the source of everything, and my theories separate and explain each nature
27. Natural Reality / A. Classical Physics / 1. Mechanics / a. Explaining movement
All things are in a state of motion [Aristotle]
27. Natural Reality / D. Cosmology / 2. Eternal Universe
The cosmos is eternal not created, and is an ever-living and changing fire
28. God / B. Proving God / 3. Proofs of Evidence / b. Teleological Proof
Heraclitus says intelligence draws on divine reason [Sext.Empiricus]
29. Religion / A. Polytheistic Religion / 2. Paganism
Purifying yourself with blood is as crazy as using mud to wash off mud
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 1. Religious Commitment / a. Religious Belief
In their ignorance people pray to statues, which is like talking to a house