Ideas of Stoic school, by Theme

[, fl. 200 BCE, General ideas attributed to the school (not individuals), c.300-40 BCE]

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 1. Nature of Wisdom
The health of the soul is a good blend of beliefs
1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 2. Wise People
No wise man has yet been discovered
Wise men are never astonished at things which other people take to be wonders
Wise men participate in politics, especially if it shows moral progress
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 4. Divisions of Philosophy
Stoic physics concerns cosmos, elements and causes (with six detailed divisions)
Ethics studies impulse, good, passion, virtue, goals, value, action, appropriateness, encouragement
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 5. Aims of Philosophy / a. Philosophy as worldly
True philosophising is not memorising ideas, but living by them
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 2. Logos
Stoics study canons, criteria and definitions, in order to find the truth
2. Reason / C. Styles of Reason / 1. Dialectic
Dialectics is mastery of question and answer form
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 3. Value of Truth
Falsehoods corrupt a mind, producing passions and instability
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 5. Truth Bearers
The truth bearers are said to be the signified, or the signifier, or the meaning of the signifier
4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 2. Syllogistic Logic
Stoics like syllogisms, for showing what is demonstrative, which corrects opinions
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 2. Logical Connectives / c. not
The contradictory of a contradictory is an affirmation
7. Existence / E. Categories / 3. Proposed Categories
Stoics have four primary categories: substrates, qualities, dispositions, relative dispositions
There are four Stoic categories; substrates, qualities, dispositions, and relative dispositions
8. Modes of Existence / D. Universals / 6. Platonic Forms / d. Forms critiques
Platonic Forms are just our thoughts
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 2. Substance / a. Substance
Stoics say matter has qualities, and substance underlies it, with no form or qualities
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / c. Wholes from parts
How is separateness possible, if separated things are always said to be united?
How is divisibility possible, if stoics say things remain united when they are divided?
Stoics say wholes are more than parts, but entirely consist of parts
10. Modality / B. Possibility / 1. Possibility
A proposition is possible if it is true when nothing stops it being true
10. Modality / B. Possibility / 8. Conditionals / c. Truth-function conditionals
Conditionals are false if the falsehood of the conclusion does not conflict with the antecedent
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 1. Knowledge
Knowledge is a secure grasp of presentations which cannot be reversed by argument
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 4. Belief / b. Elements of beliefs
Two sorts of opinion: either poorly grounded belief, or weak belief
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 1. Nature of the A Priori
There are non-sensible presentations, which come to us through the intellect
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 3. Innate Knowledge / c. Tabula rasa
Stoics say we are born like a blank sheet of paper; the first concepts on it are sensations
At birth the soul is a blank sheet ready to be written on
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 2. Qualities in Perception / d. Secondary qualities
Non-graspable presentations are from what doesn't exist, or are not clear and distinct
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 5. Interpretation
Stoic perception is a presentation to which one voluntarily assents
12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 1. Empiricism
All our concepts come from experience, directly, or by expansion, reduction or compounding
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 1. Epistemic virtues
Dialectic is a virtue which contains other virtues
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 4. Foundationalism / a. Foundationalism
Stoics said that correct judgement needs an invincible criterion of truth
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 4. Tracking the Facts
For Stoics knowledge is an assertion which never deviates from the truth
14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 2. Demonstration
Demonstration derives what is less clear from what is clear
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 1. Mind / c. Features of mind
Eight parts of the soul: five senses, seeds, speech and reason
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 1. Faculties
Our conceptions arise from experience, similarity, analogy, transposition, composition and opposition
16. Persons / A. Concept of a Person / 4. Persons as Agents
For Stoics the true self is defined by what I can be master of
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 5. Against Free Will
The free will problem was invented by the Stoics
18. Thought / A. Modes of Thought / 3. Emotions
Stoics classify passions according to the opinion of good and bad which they imply.
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 1. Concepts / a. Nature of concepts
Concepts are intellectual phantasms
19. Language / C. Assigning Meanings / 3. Predicates
Predicates are incomplete 'lekta'
19. Language / F. Communication / 1. Rhetoric
Rhetoric has three types, four modes, and four sections
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 7. Art and Morality
Stoics use 'kalon' (beautiful) as a synonym for 'agathon' (good)
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / a. Nature of value
Prime values apply to the life in agreement; useful values apply to the natural life
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / d. Subjective value
The appraiser's value is what is set by someone experienced in the facts
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / f. Ultimate value
The goal is to live consistently with the constitution of a human being
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / b. Altruism
Stoic morality says that one's own happiness will lead to impartiality
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / c. Love
Virtuous men do not feel sexual desire, which merely focuses on physical beauty
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / b. Types of good
Final goods: confidence, prudence, freedom, enjoyment and no pain, good spirits, virtue
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 2. Happiness / d. Routes to happiness
Happiness is the end and goal, achieved by living virtuously, in agreement, and according to nature
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 3. Pleasure / c. Value of pleasure
Stoics say pleasure is at most a byproduct of finding what is suitable for us
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 3. Pleasure / f. Dangers of pleasure
Rapture is a breakdown of virtue
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / a. Nature of virtue
If humans are citizens of the world (not just a state) then virtue is all good human habits
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / f. The Mean
An appropriate action is one that can be defended, perhaps by its consistency.
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / e. Honour
Honour is just, courageous, orderly or knowledgeable. It is praiseworthy, or functions well
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / g. Contemplation
The Stoics rejected entirely the high value that had been placed on contemplation
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 4. External Goods / a. External goods
Stoics do not despise external goods, but subject them to reason, and not to desire
Crafts like music and letters are virtuous conditions, and they accord with virtue
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 2. Duty
For Stoics, obligations are determined by social role
24. Applied Ethics / C. Death Issues / 4. Suicide
Stoics say a wise man will commit suicide if he has a good enough reason
Suicide is reasonable, for one's country or friends, or because of very bad health
25. Society / B. The State / 3. Constitutions
Stoics favour a mixture of democracy, monarchy and aristocracy
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 1. Political Theory
The best government blends democracy, monarchy and aristocracy
25. Society / E. State Functions / 1. The Law / b. Natural law
Stoics originated the concept of natural law, as agreed correct reasoning
26. Natural Theory / A. Concepts of Nature / 1. Nature
Stoic 'nature' is deterministic, physical and teleological
27. Natural Reality / G. Cosmology / 2. Beginning
The cosmos is regularly consumed and reorganised by the primary fire
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 2. Divine Nature
Early Stoics called the logos 'god', meaning not a being, but the principle of the universe
28. God / E. Attitudes to God / 2. Pantheism
Stoics say god is matter, or an inseparable quality of it, or is the power within it
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 1. Immortality
Virtuous souls endure till the end, foolish souls for a short time, animal souls not at all
Stoics say virtuous souls last till everything ends in fire, but foolish ones fade away