Ideas of Peter Abelard, by Theme

[French, 1079 - 1142, Born at Nantes. Castrated for affair with Heloise in 1118. At the University of Paris. Work condemned in 1121 and 1140.]

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4. Formal Logic / G. Formal Mereology / 1. Mereology
Abelard's mereology involves privileged and natural divisions, and principal parts
8. Modes of Existence / E. Nominalism / 1. Nominalism / b. Nominalism about universals
Abelard was an irrealist about virtually everything apart from concrete individuals
If 'animal' is wholly present in Socrates and an ass, then 'animal' is rational and irrational
8. Modes of Existence / E. Nominalism / 3. Predicate Nominalism
Only words can be 'predicated of many'; the universality is just in its mode of signifying
10. Modality / A. Necessity / 4. De re / De dicto modality
The de dicto-de re modality distinction dates back to Abelard
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 6. Abstract Concepts / h. Abstractionism critique
Abelard's problem is the purely singular aspects of things won't account for abstraction
19. Language / A. Language / 6. Predicates
Nothing external can truly be predicated of an object
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 6. Natural Kinds / g. Critique of kinds
Natural kinds are not special; they are just well-defined resemblance collections