Ideas of Joseph Butler, by Theme

[British, 1692 - 1752, Bishop of Durham.]

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9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 13. No Identity over Time
A tree retains identity in a 'loose popular sense', but in a 'strict philosophical sense' it changes with its particles
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 5. Self-Identity
Everything is what it is, and not another thing
16. Persons / B. Nature of the Self / 3. Self as Non-physical
If trees change identity when substance changes, unchanging persons must have a fixed substance
If we performed our past actions, we must have constant substance or properties
16. Persons / B. Nature of the Self / 4. Presupposition of Self
Consciousness of identity can't be identity; it presupposes identity is already understood
16. Persons / D. Continuity of the Self / 2. Mental Continuity / a. Memory is Self
Consciousness of past shows us our identity, but it doesn't make our identity
16. Persons / D. Continuity of the Self / 5. Concerns of the Self
How can we care about our past or future without personal identity?
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / c. Ethical intuitionism
Butler exalts conscience, but it may be horribly misleading