### Ideas of John Stuart Mill, by Theme

#### [British, 1806 - 1873, Son of James Mill (close friend of Bentham). Member of Parliament in later life.]

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###### 4. Formal Logic / F. Set Theory ST / 7. Natural Sets
 8625 What physical facts could underlie 0 or 1, or very large numbers? [Frege]
###### 5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 2. Logical Connectives / d. and
 17895 Combining two distinct assertions does not necessarily lead to a single 'complex proposition'
###### 5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 1. Naming / a. Names
 10427 All names are names of something, real or imaginary
###### 5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 1. Naming / c. Names as referential
 4944 Mill says names have denotation but not connotation [Kripke]
 7762 Proper names are just labels for persons or objects, and the meaning is the object [Lycan]
###### 6. Mathematics / A. Nature of Mathematics / 4. Using Numbers / a. Units
 9801 Numbers must be assumed to have identical units, as horses are equalised in 'horse-power'
###### 6. Mathematics / B. Foundations for Mathematics / 4. Axioms for Number / a. Axioms for numbers
 8742 The only axioms needed are for equality, addition, and successive numbers [Shapiro]
###### 6. Mathematics / B. Foundations for Mathematics / 5. Definitions of Number / b. Greek arithmetic
 9800 Arithmetic is based on definitions, and Sums of equals are equal, and Differences of equals are equal
###### 6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 4. Mathematical Empiricism / a. Mathematical empiricism
 9802 Numbers denote physical properties of physical phenomena
 9804 Arithmetical results give a mode of formation of a given number
 9805 12 is the cube of 1728 means pebbles can be aggregated a certain way
 8741 Numbers must be of something; they don't exist as abstractions
 9799 3=2+1 presupposes collections of objects ('Threes'), which may be divided thus
 9803 We can't easily distinguish 102 horses from 103, but we could arrange them to make it obvious
 5201 Mill says logic and maths is induction based on a very large number of instances [Ayer]
 9360 If two black and two white objects in practice produced five, what colour is the fifth one? [Lewis,CI]
 9888 Mill mistakes particular applications as integral to arithmetic, instead of general patterns [Dummett]
 9796 Things possess the properties of numbers, as quantity, and as countable parts
 9794 There are no such things as numbers in the abstract
 9795 Numbers have generalised application to entities (such as bodies or sounds)
 9797 '2 pebbles and 1 pebble' and '3 pebbles' name the same aggregation, but different facts
 9798 Different parcels made from three pebbles produce different actual sensations
###### 6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 4. Mathematical Empiricism / c. Against mathematical empiricism
 12411 Mill is too imprecise, and is restricted to simple arithmetic [Kitcher]
 5656 Empirical theories of arithmetic ignore zero, limit our maths, and need probability to get started [Frege]
###### 6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 5. Numbers as Adjectival
 9624 Numbers are a very general property of objects [Brown,JR]
###### 9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / a. Parts of objects
 9806 Whatever is made up of parts is made up of parts of those parts
###### 9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 7. Essence and Necessity / a. Essence as necessary properties
 11156 The essence is that without which a thing can neither be, nor be conceived to be
###### 10. Modality / A. Necessity / 2. Nature of Necessity
 12190 Necessity is what will be, despite any alternative suppositions whatever
 22623 Necessity can only mean what must be, without conditions of any kind
###### 11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 2. Phenomenalism
 3583 External objects are permanent possibilities of sensation
###### 12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 6. Inference in Perception
 16859 Most perception is one-tenth observation and nine-tenths inference
###### 12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 4. Pro-Empiricism
 9082 Clear concepts result from good observation, extensive experience, and accurate memory
###### 14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 5. Anomalies
 16860 Inductive generalisation is more reliable than one of its instances; they can't all be wrong
###### 14. Science / C. Induction / 1. Induction
 16845 The whole theory of induction rests on causes
 16843 Mill's methods (Difference,Agreement,Residues,Concomitance,Hypothesis) don't nail induction [Lipton]
###### 14. Science / D. Explanation / 1. Explanation / a. Explanation
 17086 Surprisingly, empiricists before Mill ignore explanation, which seems to transcend experience [Ruben]
###### 14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / e. Lawlike explanations
 17091 Explanation is fitting of facts into ever more general patterns of regularity [Ruben]
###### 14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / g. Causal explanations
 16805 Causal inference is by spotting either Agreements or Differences [Lipton]
###### 14. Science / D. Explanation / 3. Best Explanation / a. Best explanation
 16835 The Methods of Difference and of Agreement are forms of inference to the best explanation [Lipton]
###### 15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 4. Other Minds / d. Other minds by analogy
 3537 I judge others' feeling by analogy with my body and behaviour
###### 15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 3. Abstraction by mind
 9079 We can focus our minds on what is common to a whole class, neglecting other aspects
###### 15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 7. Seeing Resemblance
 9081 We don't recognise comparisons by something in our minds; the concepts result from the comparisons
###### 18. Thought / E. Abstraction / 1. Abstract Thought
 9080 General conceptions are a necessary preliminary to Induction
 9078 The study of the nature of Abstract Ideas does not belong to logic, but to a different science
###### 20. Action / B. Preliminaries of Action / 2. Willed Action / a. Will to Act
 3772 The will, in the beginning, is entirely produced by desire
###### 22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / g. Consequentialism
 3767 Motive shows the worth of the agent, but not of the action
###### 22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 2. Happiness / d. Routes to happiness
 7076 Mill wondered if he would be happy if all his aims were realised, and answered no [Critchley]
###### 22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / g. Moral responsibility
 7222 It is a crime for someone with a violent disposition to get drunk
###### 22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / c. Ethical intuitionism
 3769 With early training, any absurdity or evil may be given the power of conscience
###### 23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / c. Motivation for virtue
 3771 Virtues only have value because they achieve some further end
###### 23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 2. Duty
 3768 Orthodox morality is the only one which feels obligatory
###### 23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 1. Utilitarianism
 7214 Ethics rests on utility, which is the permanent progressive interests of people
 7202 The English believe in the task of annihilating evil for the victory of good [Nietzsche]
 3764 Actions are right if they promote pleasure, wrong if they promote pain
 5935 Mill's qualities of pleasure is an admission that there are other good states of mind than pleasure [Ross]
 3776 Utilitarianism only works if everybody has a totally equal right to happiness
###### 23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 2. Ideal of Pleasure
 3766 Better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied
 3765 Only pleasure and freedom from pain are desirable as ends
 3763 Ultimate goods such as pleasure can never be proved to be good
###### 23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 3. Motivation for Altruism
 3770 General happiness is only desirable because individuals desire their own happiness
###### 23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 5. Rule Utilitarianism
 6697 Moral rules protecting human welfare are more vital than local maxims
###### 24. Applied Ethics / A. Decision Conflicts / 4. Autonomy
 4653 We may restrict a person's freedom for the sake of others, but not for the person's own good [Glover]
###### 24. Applied Ethics / C. Death Issues / 3. Abortion
 7225 It is a crime to create a being who lacks the ordinary chances of a desirable existence
###### 25. Society / A. State of Nature / 2. Natural Values / a. Natural freedom
 7212 Individuals have sovereignty over their own bodies and minds
###### 25. Society / A. State of Nature / 2. Natural Values / c. Natural rights
 3773 No individual has the right to receive our benevolence
 3774 Rights are a matter of justice, not of benevolence
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / e. General will
 7210 The will of the people is that of the largest or most active part of the people
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / c. Despotism
 7227 It is evil to give a government any more power than is necessary
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 6. Government / a. Government
 7228 Individuals often do things better than governments
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 7. Changing the State / b. Devolution
 7230 Aim for the maximum dissemination of power consistent with efficiency
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 3. Social Freedom / c. Free speech
 7213 Liberty arises at the point where people can freely and equally discuss things
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 3. Social Freedom / e. Freedom of lifestyle
 20516 Mill defends freedom as increasing happiness, but maybe it is an intrinsic good [Wolff,J]
 20517 Utilitarianism values liberty, but guides us on which ones we should have or not have [Wolff,J]
 7215 True freedom is pursuing our own good, while not impeding others
 7218 Individuals are not accountable for actions which only concern themselves
 7221 Blocking entry to an unsafe bridge does not infringe liberty, since no one wants unsafe bridges
 7223 Pimping and running a gambling-house are on the border between toleration and restraint
 7220 Restraint for its own sake is an evil
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 5. Legal Rights / a. Basis of rights
 3775 A right is a valid claim to society's protection
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 6. Right to Punish / a. Right to punish
 7219 Society can punish actions which it believes to be prejudicial to others
###### 25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 2. Social Utilitarianism
 20515 Maximise happiness by an area of strict privacy, and an area of utilitarian interventions [Wolff,J]
###### 25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / a. Nature of democracy
 7229 People who transact their own business will also have the initiative to control their government
###### 25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / b. Consultation
 20508 How people vote should be on public record, so they can be held accountable [Wolff,J]
 20507 Voting is a strict duty, like jury service, and must only be aimed at the public good
###### 25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / c. Direct democracy
 20505 Direct democracy is inexperience judging experience, and ignorance judging knowledge
###### 25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / d. Representative democracy
 20504 People can only participate in decisions in small communities, so representatives are needed
###### 25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 6. Liberalism
 7211 Prevention of harm to others is the only justification for exercising power over people
 7231 The worth of a State, in the long run, is the worth of the individuals composing it
 7217 The main argument for freedom is that interference with it is usually misguided
###### 25. Society / E. State Functions / 3. Welfare provision
 7226 Benefits performed by individuals, not by government, help also to educate them
###### 25. Society / E. State Functions / 4. Education / b. Aims of education
 7224 We need individual opinions and conduct, and State education is a means to prevent that
###### 26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 8. Particular Causation / c. Conditions of causation
 8345 A cause is the total of all the conditions which inevitably produce the result
###### 26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 8. Particular Causation / d. Selecting the cause
 10391 Causes and conditions are not distinct, because we select capriciously from among them
 14547 The strict cause is the total positive and negative conditions which ensure the consequent
###### 26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 9. General Causation / a. Constant conjunction
 8377 Causation is just invariability of succession between every natural fact and a preceding fact
###### 26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 9. General Causation / d. Causal necessity
 14545 A cause is an antecedent which invariably and unconditionally leads to a phenomenon
###### 26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 4. Regularities / a. Regularity theory
 4773 Mill's regularity theory of causation is based on an effect preceded by a conjunction of causes [Psillos]
 4775 In Mill's 'Method of Agreement' cause is the common factor in a range of different cases [Psillos]
 4776 In Mill's 'Method of Difference' the cause is what stops the effect when it is removed [Psillos]
###### 26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 4. Regularities / b. Best system theory
 9417 What are the fewest propositions from which all natural uniformities could be inferred?
###### 28. God / B. Proving God / 3. Proofs of Evidence / c. Teleological Proof critique
 21332 We don't get a love of 'order' from nature - which is thoroughly chaotic
###### 29. Religion / B. Monotheistic Religion / 4. Christianity / a. Christianity
 7216 The ethics of the Gospel has been supplemented by barbarous Old Testament values
###### 29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 3. Problem of Evil / a. Problem of Evil
 21335 Belief that an afterlife is required for justice is an admission that this life is very unjust
 21334 No necessity ties an omnipotent Creator, so he evidently wills human misery
 21333 Evil comes from good just as often as good comes from evil
###### 29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 3. Problem of Evil / d. Natural Evil
 21328 Killing is a human crime, but nature kills everyone, and often with great tortures
 21329 Nature dispenses cruelty with no concern for either mercy or justice
 21330 Nature makes childbirth a miserable experience, often leading to the death of the mother
 21331 Hurricanes, locusts, floods and blight can starve a million people to death