Ideas of Ludwig Feuerbach, by Theme

[German, 1804 - 1872, Born in Bavaria. Graduate of Heidelberg. Taught by Hegel. Lived quietly near Nuremberg.]

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1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 1. History of Philosophy
All philosophies presuppose their historical moment, and arise from it
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 3. Philosophy Defined
Philosophy is distinguished from other sciences by its complete lack of presuppositions
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 4. Aims of Philosophy / a. Philosophy as worldly
I don't study Plato for his own sake; the primary aim is always understanding
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 4. Aims of Philosophy / b. Philosophy as transcendent
Only that which can be an object of religion is an object of philosophy
1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 4. Ordinary Language
Philosophy should not focus on names, but on the determined nature of things
1. Philosophy / H. Continental Philosophy / 1. Continental Philosophy
Modern philosophy begins with Descartes' abstraction from sensation and matter
Empiricism is right about ideas, but forgets man himself as one of our objects
2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 1. Laws of Thought
The laws of reality are also the laws of thought
2. Reason / C. Styles of Reason / 1. Dialectic
A dialectician has to be his own opponent
Each proposition has an antithesis, and truth exists as its refutation
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 3. Value of Truth
Truth forges an impersonal unity between people
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / a. Nature of Being
Absolute thought remains in another world from being
Being is what is undetermined, and hence indistinguishable
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / f. Primary being
Being posits essence, and my essence is my being
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / g. Particular being
Particularity belongs to being, whereas generality belongs to thought
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / h. Dasein (being human)
The only true being is of the senses, perception, feeling and love
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 5. The Absolute
The Absolute is the 'and' which unites 'spirit and nature'
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 10. Ontological Commitment / e. Ontological commitment problems
To our consciousness it is language which looks unreal
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 5. The Cogito
Descartes transformed 'God is thinkable, so he exists' into 'I think, so I exist'
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 3. Idealism
Consciousness is absolute reality, and everything exists through consciousness
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 4. Solipsism
Ideas arise through communication, and reason is reached through community
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 6. Inference in Perception
In man the lowest senses of smell and taste elevate themselves to intellectual acts
16. Persons / D. Self and Body / 3. Cartesian Ego
For Descartes a person's essence is the mind because objects are perceived by mind, not senses
18. Thought / A. Modes of Thought / 6. Rationality
When absorbed in deep reflection, is your reason in control, or is it you?
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 6. Abstract Concepts / a. Abstract concepts
The new philosophy thinks of the concrete in a concrete (not a abstract) manner
22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 1. Value / e. Ultimate value
Reason, love and will are the highest perfections and essence of man - the purpose of his life
22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 8. Love
If you love nothing, it doesn't matter whether something exists or not
22. Metaethics / C. Sources of Ethics / 1. Biological Ethics
Plotinus was ashamed to have a body
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / i. Absolute virtues
Egoism is the only evil, love the only good; genuine love produces all the other virtues
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / a. Human distinctiveness
Man is not a particular being, like animals, but a universal being
The essence of man is in community, but with distinct individuals
27. Natural Reality / C. Biology / 5. Species
Consciousness is said to distinguish man from animals - consciousness of his own species
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 2. Divine Nature
The nature of God is an expression of human nature
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 5. Divine Morality / b. Euthyphro question
A God needs justice, kindness and wisdom, but those concepts don't depend on the concept of God
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 7. God Reflecting Humanity
God is what man would like to be
If God is only an object for man, then only the essence of man is revealed in God
God is for us a mere empty idea, which we fill with our own ego and essence
28. God / C. Proofs of Reason / 1. Ontological Proof
God's existence cannot be separated from essence and concept, which can only be thought as existing
28. God / E. Attitudes to God / 4. Atheism
If love, goodness and personality are human, the God who is their source is anthropomorphic
29. Religion / A. Religious Thought / 1. Religious Belief
Absolute idealism is the realized divine mind of Leibnizian theism
Religion is the consciousness of the infinite
Today's atheism will tomorrow become a religion
29. Religion / C. Monotheistic Religion / 3. Christianity / a. Christianity
Catholicism concerns God in himself, Protestantism what God is for man