Ideas of Werner Heisenberg, by Theme

[German, 1901 - 1976, The great physicist, joint developer of quantum mechanics in 1926.]

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6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 4. Mathematical Empiricism / b. Indispensability of mathematics
If it can't be expressed mathematically, it can't occur in nature?
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 1. Realism
Quantum theory shows that exact science does not need dogmatic realism
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 3. Anti-realism
Quantum theory does not introduce minds into atomic events
8. Modes of Existence / C. Powers and Dispositions / 2. Powers as Basic
A 'probability wave' is a quantitative version of Aristotle's potential, a mid-way type of reality
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 2. Substance / a. Substance
We can retain the idea of 'substance', as indestructible mass or energy
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 2. Hylomorphism / b. Form as principle
Basic particles have a mathematical form, which is more important than their substance
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / d. Lawlike explanations
We give a mathematical account of a system of natural connections in order to clarify them
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / i. Explanations by reduction
You can only explain the qualities of large objects using entities which lack those qualities
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 3. Space / c. Substantival space
So-called 'empty' space is the carrier of geometry and kinematics
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 4. Time / f. Presentism
In relativity the length of the 'present moment' is relative to distance from the observer
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 2. Types of Laws
Seven theories in science: mechanics, heat, electricity, quantum, particles, relativity, life
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / i. Modern matter
It was formerly assumed that electromagnetic waves could not be a reality in themselves
Position is complementary to velocity or momentum, so the whole system is indeterminate
Radiation interference needs waves, but radiation photoelectric effects needs particles
An atom's stability after collisions needs explaining (which Newton's mechanics can't do)
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 3. Force
Maxwell introduced real fields, which transferred forces from point to point
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 4. Energy
Energy is an unchanging substance, having many forms, and causing all change
Energy is that which moves, and is the substance from which everything is made