Ideas of Frank P. Ramsey, by Theme
[British, 1903  1930, Cambridge University. Exceptional philosopher who died very young]
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3. Truth / H. Deflationary Truth / 1. Redundant Truth
3750

"It is true that x" means no more than x

4. Formal Logic / F. Set Theory ST / 4. Axioms for Sets / f. Axiom of Infinity V
13430

Infinity: there is an infinity of distinguishable individuals

4. Formal Logic / F. Set Theory ST / 4. Axioms for Sets / p. Axiom of Reducibility
13428

Reducibility: to every nonelementary function there is an equivalent elementary function

5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 4. Identity in Logic
13427

Either 'a = b' vacuously names the same thing, or absurdly names different things

5. Theory of Logic / L. Paradox / 1. Paradox
13334

Contradictions are either purely logical or mathematical, or they involved thought and language

6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 6. Logicism / b. Type theory
6409

The 'simple theory of types' distinguishes levels among properties [Grayling]

6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 6. Logicism / d. Logicism critique
13426

Formalists neglect content, but the logicists have focused on generalizations, and neglected form

6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 7. Formalism
13425

Formalism is hopeless, because it focuses on propositions and ignores concepts

8. Modes of Existence / D. Universals / 1. Universals
8495

The distinction between particulars and universals is a mistake made because of language

8493

We could make universals collections of particulars, or particulars collections of their qualities

8. Modes of Existence / E. Nominalism / 1. Nominalism / a. Nominalism
8494

Obviously 'Socrates is wise' and 'Socrates has wisdom' express the same fact

10. Modality / B. Possibility / 8. Conditionals / d. Nontruthfunction conditionals
13766

'If' is the same as 'given that', so the degrees of belief should conform to probability theory

10993

Ramsey's Test: believe the consequent if you believe the antecedent [Read]

10. Modality / B. Possibility / 8. Conditionals / e. Supposition conditionals
14279

Asking 'If p, will q?' when p is uncertain, then first add p hypothetically to your knowledge

11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 4. Belief / c. Aim of beliefs
3212

Beliefs are maps by which we steer

11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 4. Belief / d. Cause of beliefs
22328

I just confront the evidence, and let it act on me

13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 3. Reliabilism / a. Reliable knowledge
22325

A belief is knowledge if it is true, certain and obtained by a reliable process

19724

Belief is knowledge if it is true, certain, and obtained by a reliable process

14. Science / B. Scientific Theories / 8. Ramsey Sentences
6894

Mental terms can be replaced in a sentence by a variable and an existential quantifier

14. Science / C. Induction / 6. Bayes's Theorem
19143

Ramsey gave axioms for an uncertain agent to decide their preferences [Davidson]

19. Language / A. Nature of Meaning / 7. Meaning Holism / c. Meaning by Role
18818

Sentence meaning is given by the actions to which it would lead

26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 4. Regularities / b. Best system theory
9420

Causal laws result from the simplest axioms of a complete deductive system

9418

All knowledge needs systematizing, and the axioms would be the laws of nature
