Ideas of Richard M. Hare, by Theme

[British, 1919 - 2002, Professor at Oxford University.]

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7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 5. Supervenience / c. Significance of supervenience
The goodness of a picture supervenes on the picture; duplicates must be equally good
22. Metaethics / C. Sources of Ethics / 3. Intuitionism
You can't use intuitions to decide which intuitions you should cultivate
How can intuitionists distinguish universal convictions from local cultural ones?
22. Metaethics / C. Sources of Ethics / 4. Expressivism
Emotivists mistakenly think all disagreements are about facts, and so there are no moral reasons
22. Metaethics / C. Sources of Ethics / 5. Prescriptivism
Hare says I acquire an agglomeration of preferences by role-reversal, leading to utilitarianism
An 'ought' statement implies universal application
Prescriptivism implies a commitment, but descriptivism doesn't
If there can be contradictory prescriptions, then reasoning must be involved
Prescriptivism sees 'ought' statements as imperatives which are universalisable
If we have to want the preferences of the many, we have to abandon our own deeply-held views
If morality is to be built on identification with the preferences of others, I must agree with their errors
Descriptivism say ethical meaning is just truth-conditions; prescriptivism adds an evaluation
If morality is just a natural or intuitive description, that leads to relativism
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 8. Contract Strategies
By far the easiest way of seeming upright is to be upright
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 3. Universalisability
Moral judgements must invoke some sort of principle
The categorical imperative leads to utilitarianism