more from Baruch de Spinoza

Single Idea 4822

[catalogued under 10. Modality / C. Sources of Modality / 1. Sources of Necessity]

Full Idea

All things are conditioned by the necessity of the divine nature, not only to exist, but also to exist and operate in a particular manner, and there is nothing that is contingent.

Gist of Idea

Divine nature makes all existence and operations necessary, and nothing is contingent


Baruch de Spinoza (The Ethics [1675], I Pr 29)

Book Reference

Spinoza,Benedict de: 'Ethics, Improvement of Understanding, Letters', ed/tr. Elwes,R [Dover 1955], p.68

A Reaction

This obviously invites the response of the empiricist: how does he know that? Hume says he can't know it, and Leibniz says he knows it a priori. Traditionally, 'necessary' is the dubious term, but maybe it is 'contingent' which is meaningless.