more from Baruch de Spinoza

Single Idea 4835

[catalogued under 13. Knowledge Criteria / A. Justification Problems / 3. Internal or External / a. Pro-internalism]

Full Idea

If a man knows anything, he, by that very fact, knows that he knows it, and at the same time knows that he knows that he knows it, and so on to infinity.

Gist of Idea

Anyone who knows, must know that they know, and even know that they know that they know..


Baruch de Spinoza (The Ethics [1675], II Pr 21)

Book Reference

Spinoza,Benedict de: 'Ethics, Improvement of Understanding, Letters', ed/tr. Elwes,R [Dover 1955], p.103

A Reaction

A delightfully bold claim! This is 'super internalism', but it seems to require that we must be certain in order to know, whereas I think my own view is internalist but 'fallibilist' - I know, while admitting I could be wrong.