Ideas from 'Plural Quantification' by Øystein Linnebo [2008], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Stanford Online Encyclopaedia of Philosophy' (ed/tr Stanford University) [plato.stanford.edu ,-]].

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5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 4. Pure Logic
A pure logic is wholly general, purely formal, and directly known
5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 6. Plural Quantification
Second-order quantification and plural quantification are different
Traditionally we eliminate plurals by quantifying over sets
Instead of complex objects like tables, plurally quantify over mereological atoms tablewise
'Some critics admire only one another' cannot be paraphrased in singular first-order
Plural plurals are unnatural and need a first-level ontology
Plural quantification may allow a monadic second-order theory with first-order ontology
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 10. Ontological Commitment / a. Ontological commitment
We speak of a theory's 'ideological commitments' as well as its 'ontological commitments'
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 10. Ontological Commitment / e. Ontological commitment problems
Ordinary speakers posit objects without concern for ontology
19. Language / B. Assigning Meanings / 3. Predicates
Predicates are 'distributive' or 'non-distributive'; do individuals do what the group does?