Ideas from 'The Problem of Knowledge' by A.J. Ayer [1956], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Problem of Knowledge' by Ayer,A.J. [Penguin 1966,-]].

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2. Reason / F. Fallacies / 1. Fallacy
Induction assumes some uniformity in nature, or that in some respects the future is like the past
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 6. Cogito Critique
Knowing I exist reveals nothing at all about my nature
To say 'I am not thinking' must be false, but it might have been true, so it isn't self-contradictory
'I know I exist' has no counterevidence, so it may be meaningless
14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 6. Falsification
We only discard a hypothesis after one failure if it appears likely to keep on failing
14. Science / C. Induction / 2. Aims of Induction
Induction passes from particular facts to other particulars, or to general laws, non-deductively