Ideas from 'The Central Questions of Philosophy' by A.J. Ayer [1973], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The Central Questions of Philosophy' by Ayer,A.J. [Penguin 1976,0-14-021982-x]].

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2. Reason / E. Argument / 3. Analogy
You can't infer that because you have a hidden birth-mark, everybody else does
5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 1. Naming / d. Singular terms
Russell rewrote singular term names as predicates
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 10. Ontological Commitment / b. Commitment of quantifiers
It is currently held that quantifying over something implies belief in its existence
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 3. Individual Essences
We see properties necessary for a kind (in the definition), but not for an individual
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 4. Other Minds / c. Knowing other minds
The theory of other minds has no rival
Originally I combined a mentalistic view of introspection with a behaviouristic view of other minds
Physicalism undercuts the other mind problem, by equating experience with 'public' brain events
16. Persons / C. Self-Awareness / 2. Self-Knowledge
Self-consciousness is not basic, because experiences are not instrinsically marked with ownership
16. Persons / E. Self as Mind / 3. Psychological Self critique
Temporal gaps in the consciousness of a spirit could not be bridged by memories
16. Persons / E. Self as Mind / 4. Associated Self
Qualia must be united by a subject, because they lead to concepts and judgements
Is something an 'experience' because it relates to other experiences, or because it relates to a subject?
16. Persons / F. Self as Body / 1. Role of the Body
Bodily identity and memory work together to establish personal identity
17. Mind and Body / E. Physicalism / 1. Physicalism
Why shouldn't we say brain depends on mind? Better explanation!
19. Language / E. Propositions / 5. Propositions Critique
Talk of propositions is just shorthand for talking about equivalent sentences