Ideas from 'Identity over Time' by André Gallois [2011], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Stanford Online Encyclopaedia of Philosophy' (ed/tr Stanford University) [ ,-]].

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9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 1. Objects over Time
If things change they become different - but then no one thing undergoes the change!
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 4. Four-Dimensionalism
4D: time is space-like; a thing is its history; past and future are real; or things extend in time
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 6. Identity between Objects
If two things are equal, each side involves a necessity, so the equality is necessary