Ideas from 'Locke on Essences and Kinds' by Antony Eagle [2005], by Theme Structure

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9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 13. Nominal Essence
If kinds depend only on what can be observed, many underlying essences might produce the same kind
Nominal essence mistakenly gives equal weight to all underlying properties that produce appearances
Nominal essence are the observable properties of things
If essence is 'nominal', artificial gold (with its surface features) would qualify as 'gold'
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 6. Natural Kinds / d. Source of kinds
Kinds are fixed by the essential properties of things - the properties that make it that kind of thing