Ideas from 'works (frags)' by Aristotle [330 BCE], by Theme Structure

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 1. Nature of Wisdom
There is practical wisdom (for action), and theoretical wisdom (for deep understanding)
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 2. Logos
For Aristotle logos is essentially the ability to talk rationally about questions of value
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 4. Aims of Reason
Aristotle is the supreme optimist about the ability of logos to explain nature
2. Reason / D. Definition / 4. Real Definition
Aristotelian definitions aim to give the essential properties of the thing defined
2. Reason / D. Definition / 5. Genus and Differentia
Aristotelian definition involves first stating the genus, then the differentia of the thing
4. Formal Logic / G. Formal Mereology / 1. Mereology
Aristotle relativises the notion of wholeness to different measures
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 1. Logical Form
For Aristotle, the subject-predicate structure of Greek reflected a substance-accident structure of reality
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 2. Hylomorphism / a. Hylomorphism
The unmoved mover and the soul show Aristotelian form as the ultimate mereological atom
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 2. Hylomorphism / d. Form as unifier
The 'form' is the recipe for building wholes of a particular kind
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 1. Knowledge
For Aristotle, knowledge is of causes, and is theoretical, practical or productive
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 1. Nature of the A Priori
The notion of a priori truth is absent in Aristotle
12. Knowledge Sources / E. Direct Knowledge / 1. Intuition
Aristotle wants to fit common intuitions, and therefore uses language as a guide
14. Science / B. Scientific Theories / 1. Scientific Theory
Plato says sciences are unified around Forms; Aristotle says they're unified around substance
14. Science / D. Explanation / 1. Explanation / a. Explanation
Aristotelian explanations are facts, while modern explanations depend on human conceptions
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / a. Types of explanation
Aristotle's standard analysis of species and genus involves specifying things in terms of something more general
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / j. Explanations by essence
Aristotle regularly says that essential properties explain other significant properties
19. Language / F. Analytic/Synthetic / 3. Analytic Truths
The notion of analytic truth is absent in Aristotle
22. Metaethics / C. Sources of Ethics / 2. Human Nature
Aristotle never actually says that man is a rational animal
25. Society / E. State Functions / 5. Education / a. Education principles
Aristotle said the educated were superior to the uneducated as the living are to the dead
25. Society / E. State Functions / 5. Education / b. Aims of education
It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain an idea without accepting it
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / a. Greek matter
Aristotle's matter can become any other kind of matter
27. Natural Reality / D. Cosmology / 3. Infinite in Nature
There are potential infinities (never running out), but actual infinity is incoherent