Ideas from 'De Anima' by Aristotle [329 BCE], by Theme Structure

[found in 'De Anima (On the Soul)' by Aristotle (ed/tr Lawson-Tancred,H.C.) [Penguin 1986,0-14-044471-8]].

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2. Reason / E. Argument / 7. Thought Experiments
Thinking is not perceiving, but takes the form of imagination and speculation
6. Mathematics / A. Nature of Mathematics / 3. Numbers / a. Numbers
We perceive number by the denial of continuity
8. Modes of Existence / C. Powers and Dispositions / 4. Powers as Essence
Sight is the essence of the eye, fitting its definition; the eye itself is just the matter
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 3. Innate Knowledge / c. Tabula rasa
The intellect has potential to think, like a tablet on which nothing has yet been written
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 1. Perception
Our minds take on the form of what is being perceived
Why can't we sense the senses? And why do senses need stimuli?
Sense organs aren't the end of sensation, or they would know what does the sensing
Perception necessitates pleasure and pain, which necessitates appetite
Why do we have many senses, and not just one?
Perception of sensible objects is virtually never wrong
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 2. Qualities in Perception / c. Primary qualities
Many objects of sensation are common to all the senses
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 2. Qualities in Perception / d. Secondary qualities
Some objects of sensation are unique to one sense, where deception is impossible
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 3. Representation
In moral thought images are essential, to be pursued or avoided
12. Knowledge Sources / C. Rationalism / 1. Rationalism
We may think when we wish, but not perceive, because universals are within the mind
14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 2. Demonstration
Demonstration starts from a definition of essence, so we can derive (or conjecture about) the properties
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / j. Explanations by essence
To understand a triangle summing to two right angles, we need to know the essence of a line
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 1. Mind / c. Features of mind
Mind involves movement, perception, incorporeality
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 2. Psuché
Aristotle led to the view that there are several souls, all somewhat physical
Psuché is the form and actuality of a body which potentially has life
The soul is the cause or source of movement, the essence of body, and its end
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 5. Unity of Mind
If the soul is composed of many physical parts, it can't be a true unity
What unifies the soul would have to be a super-soul, which seems absurd
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 6. Anti-Individualism
In a way the soul is everything which exists, through its perceptions and thoughts
17. Mind and Body / A. Mind-Body Dualism / 1. Dualism
Emotion involves the body, thinking uses the mind, imagination hovers between them
17. Mind and Body / A. Mind-Body Dualism / 8. Dualism of Mind Critique
Early thinkers concentrate on the soul but ignore the body, as if it didn't matter what body received the soul
17. Mind and Body / C. Functionalism / 1. Functionalism
Does the mind think or pity, or does the whole man do these things?
Aristotle has a problem fitting his separate reason into the soul, which is said to be the form of the body
17. Mind and Body / E. Mind as Physical / 1. Physical Mind
The soul and the body are inseparable, like the imprint in some wax
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 3. Pleasure / a. Nature of pleasure
Pleasure and pain are perceptions of things as good or bad
26. Natural Theory / A. Heart of Nature / 1. Nature
Nature does nothing in vain
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 2. Movement
Practical reason is based on desire, so desire must be the ultimate producer of movement
If all movement is either pushing or pulling, there must be a still point in between where it all starts