Ideas from 'On Interpretation' by Aristotle [330 BCE], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Categories and De Interpretatione' by Aristotle (ed/tr Ackrill,J.R.) [OUP 1963,0-19-872086-6]].

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2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 4. Contraries
In "Callias is just/not just/unjust", which of these are contraries?
3. Truth / B. Truthmakers / 10. Making Future Truths
It is necessary that either a sea-fight occurs tomorrow or it doesn't, though neither option is in itself necessary
3. Truth / C. Correspondence Truth / 1. Correspondence Truth
Statements are true according to how things actually are
4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 1. Aristotelian Logic
Aristotle's later logic had to treat 'Socrates' as 'everything that is Socrates' [Potter]
Square of Opposition: not both true, or not both false; one-way implication; opposite truth-values
4. Formal Logic / D. Modal Logic ML / 1. Modal Logic
Modal Square 2: □P and ◊P are 'subcontraries' of □P and ◊P [Fitting/Mendelsohn]
Modal Square 1: □P and ◊P are 'contraries' of □P and ◊P [Fitting/Mendelsohn]
Modal Square 3: □P and ◊P are 'contradictories' of □P and ◊P [Fitting/Mendelsohn]
Modal Square 4: □P and ◊P are 'contradictories' of □P and ◊P [Fitting/Mendelsohn]
Modal Square 5: □P and ◊P are 'subalternatives' of □P and ◊P [Fitting/Mendelsohn]
Modal Square 6: □P and ◊P are 'subalternatives' of □P and ◊P [Fitting/Mendelsohn]
5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 1. Bivalence
In talking of future sea-fights, Aristotle rejects bivalence [Williamson]
5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 2. Excluded Middle
A prayer is a sentence which is neither true nor false
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / e. Being and nothing
Non-existent things aren't made to exist by thought, because their non-existence is part of the thought
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 5. Reason for Existence
Maybe necessity and non-necessity are the first principles of ontology
19. Language / A. Nature of Meaning / 2. Meaning as Mental
For Aristotle meaning and reference are linked to concepts [Putnam]
19. Language / D. Propositions / 4. Mental Propositions
Spoken sounds vary between people, but are signs of affections of soul, which are the same for all
19. Language / F. Communication / 3. Denial
It doesn't have to be the case that in opposed views one is true and the other false
27. Natural Reality / C. Space-Time / 2. Time / h. Growing block of time
Things may be necessary once they occur, but not be unconditionally necessary