Ideas from 'On the Heavens' by Aristotle [336 BCE], by Theme Structure

[found in 'On the Heavens I and II' by Aristotle (ed/tr Leggatt,Stuart) [Aris and Phillips 1995,0-85668-662-x]].

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2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 9. Limits of Reason
A very hungry man cannot choose between equidistant piles of food
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / i. Successful function
Each thing that has a function is for the sake of that function
26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 2. Natural Purpose / a. Final purpose
There has to be some goal, and not just movement to infinity
An unworn sandal is in vain, but nothing in nature is in vain
26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 6. Early Matter Theories / f. Ancient elements
Aether moves in circles and is imperishable; the four elements perish, and move in straight lines [Gill,ML]
An element is what bodies are analysed into, and won't itself divide into something else
27. Natural Reality / A. Classical Physics / 1. Mechanics / a. Explaining movement
If the more you raise some earth the faster it moves, why does the whole earth not move?
27. Natural Reality / C. Space / 1. Void
Void is a kind of place, so it can't explain place
27. Natural Reality / E. Cosmology / 1. Cosmology
The Earth must be spherical, because it casts a convex shadow on the moon
The earth must be round and of limited size, because moving north or south makes different stars visible
27. Natural Reality / E. Cosmology / 3. The Beginning
Everyone agrees that the world had a beginning, but thinkers disagree over whether it will end
27. Natural Reality / E. Cosmology / 10. Multiverse
It seems possible that there exists a limited number of other worlds apart from this one