Ideas from 'Topics' by Aristotle [331 BCE], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Posterior Analytics and Topica' by Aristotle (ed/tr Tredennick,H/Foster,ES) [Harvard 1960,978-0-674-99430-0]].

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1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 2. Analysis by Division
Begin examination with basics, and subdivide till you can go no further
2. Reason / C. Styles of Reason / 1. Dialectic
Dialectic starts from generally accepted opinions
2. Reason / D. Definition / 1. Definitions
Definitions are easily destroyed, since they can contain very many assertions
There can't be one definition of two things, or two definitions of the same thing
2. Reason / D. Definition / 5. Genus and Differentia
Differentia are generic, and belong with genus
'Genus' is part of the essence shared among several things
We describe the essence of a particular thing by means of its differentiae
The differentia indicate the qualities, but not the essence
In definitions the first term to be assigned ought to be the genus
The genera and the differentiae are part of the essence
2. Reason / D. Definition / 6. Definition by Essence
The definition is peculiar to one thing, not common to many
5. Theory of Logic / L. Paradox / 2. Aporiai
Puzzles arise when reasoning seems equal on both sides
6. Mathematics / A. Nature of Mathematics / 4. Using Numbers / a. Units
Unit is the starting point of number
7. Existence / E. Categories / 3. Proposed Categories
There are ten categories: essence, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, position, state, activity, passivity
8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 1. Nature of Properties
An individual property has to exist (in past, present or future)
8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 3. Types of Properties
An 'accident' is something which may possibly either belong or not belong to a thing
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 5. Individuation / e. Individuation by kind
Genus gives the essence better than the differentiae do
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / c. Wholes from parts
In the case of a house the parts can exist without the whole, so parts are not the whole
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 3. Individual Essences
Everything that is has one single essence
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 7. Essence and Necessity / b. Essence not necessities
An 'idion' belongs uniquely to a thing, but is not part of its essence
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 11. End of an Object
Destruction is dissolution of essence
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 12. Origin as Essential
If two things are the same, they must have the same source and origin
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 9. Sameness
'Same' is mainly for names or definitions, but also for propria, and for accidents
Two identical things have the same accidents, they are the same; if the accidents differ, they're different
Numerical sameness and generic sameness are not the same
10. Modality / A. Necessity / 6. Logical Necessity
Reasoning is when some results follow necessarily from certain claims
14. Science / C. Induction / 1. Induction
Induction is the progress from particulars to universals
14. Science / C. Induction / 3. Limits of Induction
We say 'so in cases of this kind', but how do you decide what is 'of this kind'?
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / a. Virtues
Justice and self-control are better than courage, because they are always useful
Friendship is preferable to money, since its excess is preferable
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 4. External Goods / d. Friendship
We value friendship just for its own sake
24. Political Theory / A. Basis of a State / 1. A People / a. Human distinctiveness
Man is intrinsically a civilized animal
26. Natural Theory / B. Natural Kinds / 2. Defining Kinds
All water is the same, because of a certain similarity
28. God / B. Proving God / 2. Proofs of Reason / b. Ontological Proof critique
'Being' and 'oneness' are predicated of everything which exists