### Ideas from 'Topics' by Aristotle [331 BCE], by Theme Structure

#### [found in 'Posterior Analytics and Topica' by Aristotle (ed/tr Tredennick,H/Foster,ES) [Harvard 1960,978-0-674-99430-0]].

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###### 1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 2. Analysis by Division
 12274 Begin examination with basics, and subdivide till you can go no further
###### 2. Reason / C. Styles of Reason / 1. Dialectic
 12260 Dialectic starts from generally accepted opinions
###### 2. Reason / D. Definition / 1. Definitions
 12291 There can't be one definition of two things, or two definitions of the same thing
 12292 Definitions are easily destroyed, since they can contain very many assertions
###### 2. Reason / D. Definition / 5. Genus and Differentia
 12283 In definitions the first term to be assigned ought to be the genus
 12289 The genera and the differentiae are part of the essence
 12261 Differentia are generic, and belong with genus
 12263 'Genus' is part of the essence shared among several things
 12272 We describe the essence of a particular thing by means of its differentiae
 12279 The differentia indicate the qualities, but not the essence
###### 2. Reason / D. Definition / 6. Definition by Essence
 12285 The definition is peculiar to one thing, not common to many
###### 5. Theory of Logic / L. Paradox / 2. Aporiai
 11261 Puzzles arise when reasoning seems equal on both sides
###### 6. Mathematics / A. Nature of Mathematics / 4. Using Numbers / a. Units
 12273 Unit is the starting point of number
###### 7. Existence / E. Categories / 3. Proposed Categories
 12267 There are ten categories: essence, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, position, state, activity, passivity
###### 8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 1. Nature of Properties
 12282 An individual property has to exist (in past, present or future)
###### 8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 3. Types of Properties
 12264 An 'accident' is something which may possibly either belong or not belong to a thing
###### 9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 5. Individuation / e. Individuation by kind
 12280 Genus gives the essence better than the differentiae do
###### 9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / c. Wholes from parts
 13269 In the case of a house the parts can exist without the whole, so parts are not the whole
###### 9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 3. Individual Essences
 12284 Everything that is has one single essence
###### 9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 7. Essence and Necessity / b. Essence not necessities
 12262 An 'idion' belongs uniquely to a thing, but is not part of its essence
###### 9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 11. End of an Object
 12290 Destruction is dissolution of essence
###### 9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 12. Origin as Essential
 12286 If two things are the same, they must have the same source and origin
###### 9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 9. Sameness
 12266 'Same' is mainly for names or definitions, but also for propria, and for accidents
 12287 Two identical things have the same accidents, they are the same; if the accidents differ, they're different
 12288 Numerical sameness and generic sameness are not the same
###### 10. Modality / A. Necessity / 6. Logical Necessity
 12259 Reasoning is when some results follow necessarily from certain claims
###### 14. Science / C. Induction / 1. Induction
 12271 Induction is the progress from particulars to universals
###### 14. Science / C. Induction / 3. Limits of Induction
 12293 We say 'so in cases of this kind', but how do you decide what is 'of this kind'?
###### 23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / a. Virtues
 12277 Friendship is preferable to money, since its excess is preferable
 12276 Justice and self-control are better than courage, because they are always useful
###### 23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 4. External Goods / d. Friendship
 12275 We value friendship just for its own sake
###### 25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / a. Human distinctiveness
 12281 Man is intrinsically a civilized animal
###### 26. Natural Theory / B. Natural Kinds / 2. Defining Kinds
 12265 All water is the same, because of a certain similarity
###### 28. God / B. Proving God / 2. Proofs of Reason / b. Ontological Proof critique
 12278 'Being' and 'oneness' are predicated of everything which exists