Ideas from 'Parerga and Paralipomena' by Arthur Schopenhauer [1851], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Essays and Aphorisms [from Pand P]' by Schopenhauer,Arthur (ed/tr Hollingdale,R.J.) [Penguin 1970,0-14-044227-8]].

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1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 5. Metaphysics beyond Science
Metaphysics studies the inexplicable ends of explanation
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 1. Realism
For me the objective thing-in-itself is the will
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 3. Value of Knowledge
Knowledge is not power! Ignorant people possess supreme authority
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 1. Nature of the A Priori
A priori propositions are those we could never be seriously motivated to challenge
14. Science / D. Explanation / 1. Explanation / a. Explanation
All knowledge and explanation rests on the inexplicable
15. Nature of Minds / B. Features of Minds / 2. Unconscious Mind
Half our thinking is unconscious, and we reach conclusions while unaware of premises
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 6. Determinism / a. Determinism
We don't control our own thinking
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 2. Origin of Concepts / b. Empirical concepts
All of our concepts are borrowed from perceptual knowledge
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 1. Aesthetics
Aesthetics concerns how we can take pleasure in an object, with no reference to the will
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 4. Beauty
The beautiful is a perception of Plato's Forms, which eliminates the will
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 3. Pleasure / c. Value of pleasure
Pleasure is weaker, and pain stronger, than we expect
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / e. Human nature
Man is essentially a dreadful wild animal
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / e. Character
A man's character can be learned from a single characteristic action
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / a. Virtues
The five Chinese virtues: pity, justice, politeness, wisdom, honesty
Buddhists wisely start with the cardinal vices
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 4. Boredom
Boredom is only felt by those clever enough to need activity
Human life is a mistake, shown by boredom, which is direct awareness of the fact
24. Political Theory / B. Nature of a State / 1. Purpose of a State
The state only exists to defend citizens, from exterior threats, and from one another
25. Social Practice / A. Freedoms / 1. Slavery
Poverty and slavery are virtually two words for the same thing
25. Social Practice / A. Freedoms / 3. Free speech
The freedom of the press to sell poison outweighs its usefulness
25. Social Practice / F. Life Issues / 4. Suicide
If suicide was quick and easy, most people would have done it by now
25. Social Practice / F. Life Issues / 5. Sexual Morality
Would humanity still exist if sex wasn't both desired and pleasurable?
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 1. Religious Commitment / a. Religious Belief
Only religion introduces serious issues to uneducated people
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 3. Problem of Evil / a. Problem of Evil
The Creator created the possibilities for worlds, so should have made a better one than this possible