Ideas from 'The World as Will and Idea' by Arthur Schopenhauer [1819], by Theme Structure

[found in 'The World as Will and Idea' by Schopenhauer,Arthur (ed/tr Berman,Jill and David) [Everyman 1995,0-460-87505-1]].

green numbers give full details    |     back to texts     |     expand these ideas


1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 3. Philosophy Defined
Philosophy considers only the universal, in nature as everywhere else
Everyone is conscious of all philosophical truths, but philosophers bring them to conceptual awareness
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 8. Humour
Absurdity is incongruity between correct and false points of view
1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 4. Metaphysics as Science
Metaphysics must understand the world thoroughly, as a principal source of knowledge
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 2. Types of Existence
Matter and intellect are inseparable correlatives which only exist relatively, and for each other
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 2. Reality
Schopenhauer, unlike other idealists, says reality is irrational [Lewis,PB]
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 3. Anti-realism
The knowing subject and the crude matter of the world are both in themselves unknowable
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 4. The Cogito
Descartes found the true beginning of philosophy with the Cogito, in the consciousness of the individual
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 3. Idealism / a. Idealism
Schopenhauer can't use force/energy instead of 'will', because he is not a materialist [Lewis,PB]
The world only exists in relation to something else, as an idea of the one who conceives it
We know reality because we know our own bodies and actions
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 3. Idealism / b. Transcendental idealism
Kant rightly separates appearance and thing-in-itself
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 4. Sense Data / a. Sense-data theory
Direct feeling of the senses are merely data; perception of the world comes with understanding causes
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 5. Interpretation
All perception is intellectual
15. Nature of Minds / B. Features of Minds / 1. Consciousness / a. Consciousness
A consciousness without an object is no consciousness
15. Nature of Minds / B. Features of Minds / 2. Unconscious Mind
We have hidden and unadmitted desires and fears, suppressed because of vanity
16. Persons / C. Self-Awareness / 2. Knowing the Self
I know both aspects of my body, as representation, and as will
16. Persons / E. Rejecting the Self / 4. Denial of the Self
It is as perverse to resent our individuality being replaced by others, as to resent the body renewing itself
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 5. Against Free Will
We all regard ourselves a priori as free, but see from experience that character and motive compel us
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 6. Determinism / a. Determinism
Man's actions are not free, because they follow strictly from impact of motive on character
20. Action / A. Definition of Action / 4. Action as Movement
Every true act of will is also at once and without exception a movement of the body
20. Action / B. Preliminaries of Action / 2. Willed Action / a. Will to Act
Only the will is thing-in-itself, seen both in blind nature and in human action
Schopenhauer was caught in Christian ideals, because he didn't deify his 'will' [Nietzsche]
20. Action / C. Motives for Action / 3. Acting on Reason / a. Practical reason
If we were essentially intellect rather than will, our moral worth would depend on imagined motives
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 2. Aesthetic Attitude
Schopenhauer is a chief proponent of aesthetic experience as 'disinterested' [Janaway]
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 4. Beauty
A principal pleasure of the beautiful is that it momentarily silences the will
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 6. The Sublime
The Sublime fights for will-less knowing, when faced with a beautiful threat to humanity [Lewis,PB]
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 5. Objectivism in Art
Schopenhauer emphasises Ideas in art, unlike most romantics [Lewis,PB]
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 6. Value of Art
The will-less contemplation of art brings a liberation from selfhood [Gardner]
Man is more beautiful than anything else, and the loftiest purpose of art is to reveal his nature
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / d. Subjective value
Every good is essentially relative, for it has its essential nature only in its relation to a desiring will
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / f. Ultimate value
Will casts aside each of its temporary fulfilments, so human life has no ultimate aim [Scruton]
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / d. Altruism
Altruistic people make less distinction than usual between themselves and others
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / g. Self interest
Only self-love can motivate morality, but that also makes it worthless
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 2. Happiness / a. Nature of happiness
Happiness is the swift movement from desire to satisfaction, and then again on to desire
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 2. Happiness / d. Routes to happiness
We can never attain happiness while our will is pursuing desires
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / c. Purpose of ethics
The only aim of our existence is to grasp that non-existence would be better
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / d. Ethical theory
We should no more expect ethical theory to produce good people than aesthetics to produce artists
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / a. Nature of virtue
Virtue must spring from an intuitive recognition that other people are essentially like us
24. Applied Ethics / C. Death Issues / 1. Death
Most people would probably choose non-existence at the end of their life, rather than relive the whole thing
26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 1. Nature
The essence of nature is the will to life itself
29. Religion / B. Monotheistic Religion / 4. Christianity / a. Christianity
Christianity is a pessimistic religion, in which the world is equated with evil
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 1. Religious Commitment / a. Religious Belief
Religion is the mythical clothing of the truth which is inaccessible to the crude human intellect