Ideas from 'Commentary on the Metaphysics' by Avicenna (Abu Ibn Sina) [1022], by Theme Structure

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1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 1. Nature of Metaphysics
Understanding begins with the notion of being and essence
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 5. Simples
The simple's whatness is its very self
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 3. Matter of an Object
The ultimate material of things has the unity of total formlessness
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 2. Types of Essence
An essence can either be universal (in the mind) or singular (in concrete particulars)