Ideas from 'Tractatus Theologico-Politicus' by Baruch de Spinoza [1670], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Theological-Political Treatise' by Spinoza,Benedict de (ed/tr Israel,Jonathan) [CUP 2007,0-521-53097-0]].

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2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 4. Aims of Reason
Without reason and human help, human life is misery
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 1. Free Will / a. Nature of free will
People are only free if they are guided entirely by reason
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / c. A unified people
Peoples are created by individuals, not by nature, and only distinguished by language and law
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 4. Natural Rights / a. Natural rights
In nature everything has an absolute right to do anything it is capable of doing
Natural rights are determined by desire and power, not by reason
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 4. Natural Rights / b. Alienating rights
No one, in giving up their power and right, ceases to be a human being
Forming a society meant following reason, and giving up dangerous appetites and mutual harm
Everyone who gives up their rights must fear the recipients of them
The early Hebrews, following Moses, gave up their rights to God alone
People only give up their rights, and keep promises, if they hope for some greater good
Once you have given up your rights, there is no going back
In democracy we don't abandon our rights, but transfer them to the majority of us
25. Society / B. The State / 1. Purpose of a State
Society exists to extend human awareness
The state aims to allow personal development, so its main purpose is freedom
25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / a. Sovereignty
Sovereignty must include the power to make people submit to it
25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / b. Monarchy
Monarchs are always proud, and can't back down
Kings tend to fight wars for glory, rather than for peace and liberty
Deposing a monarch is dangerous, because the people are used to royal authority
25. Society / B. The State / 7. Changing the State / c. Revolution
Every state is more frightened of its own citizens than of external enemies
25. Society / B. The State / 8. Religion in Society
State and religious law can clash, so the state must make decisions about religion
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / c. Direct democracy
Democracy is a legitimate gathering of people who do whatever they can do
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 11. Theocracy
Allowing religious ministers any control of the state is bad for both parties
If religion is law, then piety is justice, impiety is crime, and non-believers must leave
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 1. Legal Rights / a. Basis of rights
The sovereignty has absolute power over citizens
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 2. Social Freedom / a. Slavery
Slavery is not just obedience, but acting only in the interests of the master
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 2. Social Freedom / b. Freedom of belief
Government is oppressive if opinions can be crimes, because people can't give them up
Without liberty of thought there is no trust in the state, and corruption follows
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 2. Social Freedom / c. Free speech
Treason may be committed as much by words as by deeds
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 2. Social Freedom / e. Freedom of lifestyle
The freest state is a rational one, where people can submit themselves to reason
25. Society / E. State Functions / 2. The Law / b. Natural law
The order of nature does not prohibit anything, and allows whatever appetite produces
29. Religion / C. Monotheistic Religion / 1. Judaism
Hewbrews were very hostile to other states, who had not given up their rights to God
29. Religion / C. Monotheistic Religion / 4. Bible
The Bible has nothing in common with reasoning and philosophy