Ideas from 'Shame and Necessity' by Bernard Williams [1993], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Shame and Necessity' by Williams,Bernard [California 1994,0-520-08830-1]].

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16. Persons / G. Free Will / 1. Free Will / c. Free will critique
There is only a problem of free will if you think the notion of 'voluntary' can be metaphysically deepened
It is an absurd Kantian idea that at the limit rationality and freedom coincide
17. Mind and Body / A. Mind-Body Dualism / 8. Dualism of Mind Critique
Homer does not distinguish between soul and body
20. Action / C. Preliminaries of Action / 3. Willed Action / a. Will to Act
The 'will' doesn't exist; there is just conclusion, then action
20. Action / C. Preliminaries of Action / 3. Willed Action / c. Weakness of will
We judge weakness of will by an assessment after the event is concluded
20. Action / D. Explaining an Action / 4. Justifying an Action
Responsibility involves cause, intention, state of mind, and response after the event
22. Metaethics / B. Basis of Ethics / 1. Morality
In bad actions, guilt points towards victims, and shame to the agent
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / a. Nature of virtue
Greek moral progress came when 'virtue' was freed from social status
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 2. Duty
The modern idea of duty is unknown in archaic Greece
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 5. Motivation for Duty
If reason cannot lead people to good, we must hope they have an internal voice
If the moral self is seen as characterless, then other people have a very limited role in our moral lives
29. Religion / F. Problem of Evil / 1. Problem of Evil
There is a problem of evil only if you expect the world to be good