### Ideas from 'On Denoting' by Bertrand Russell [1905], by Theme Structure

#### [found in 'Logic and Knowledge' by Russell,Bertrand (ed/tr Marsh,Robert Charles) [Routledge 1956,0-415-09074-1]].

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###### 5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 1. Logical Form
 7758 'Elizabeth = Queen of England' is really a predication, not an identity-statement
###### 5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 4. Variables in Logic
 5772 The idea of a variable is fundamental
###### 5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 1. Naming / b. Names as descriptive
 18941 Names don't have a sense, but are disguised definite descriptions
 4945 Russell says names are not denotations, but definite descriptions in disguise
 18942 Russell says a name contributes a complex of properties, rather than an object
 7745 Are names descriptions, if the description is unknown, false, not special, or contains names?
###### 5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 1. Naming / c. Names as referential
 15159 The meaning of a logically proper name is its referent, but most names are not logically proper
 10449 Logically proper names introduce objects; definite descriptions introduce quantifications
###### 5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 1. Naming / d. Singular terms
 7757 "Nobody" is not a singular term, but a quantifier
###### 5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 2. Descriptions / b. Definite descriptions
 6411 Critics say definite descriptions can refer, and may not embody both uniqueness and existence claims
 10433 Definite descriptions fail to refer in three situations, so they aren't essentially referring
###### 5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 2. Descriptions / c. Theory of definite descriptions
 1608 The theory of descriptions eliminates the name of the entity whose existence was presupposed
 7754 Russell's theory explains non-existents, negative existentials, identity problems, and substitutivity
 6412 Russell implies that 'the baby is crying' is only true if the baby is unique
 7743 Russell explained descriptions with quantifiers, where Frege treated them as names
 7310 Russell avoids non-existent objects by denying that definite descriptions are proper names
 12796 Non-count descriptions don't threaten Russell's theory, which is only about singulars
 11009 Russell's theory must be wrong if it says all statements about non-existents are false
 7532 Denoting is crucial in Russell's account of mathematics, for identifying classes
###### 5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 3. Objectual Quantification
 6061 Existence is entirely expressed by the existential quantifier
###### 7. Existence / E. Categories / 3. Proposed Categories
 7533 The Theory of Description dropped classes and numbers, leaving propositions, individuals and universals
###### 8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 12. Denial of Properties
 6063 Russell can't attribute existence to properties
###### 19. Language / B. Assigning Meanings / 5. Fregean Semantics
 16349 Russell rejected sense/reference, because it made direct acquaintance with things impossible
 7313 'Sense' is superfluous (rather than incoherent)
###### 19. Language / B. Assigning Meanings / 6. Truth-Conditions Semantics
 7767 The theory of definite descriptions aims at finding correct truth conditions
###### 19. Language / C. Reference / 2. Denoting
 5810 Referring is not denoting, and Russell ignores the referential use of definite descriptions
 5774 Denoting phrases are meaningless, but guarantee meaning for propositions
 5775 In 'Scott is the author of Waverley', denotation is identical, but meaning is different
 16385 A definite description 'denotes' an entity if it fits the description uniquely
###### 19. Language / C. Reference / 4. Descriptive Reference / a. Sense and reference
 16987 By eliminating descriptions from primitive notation, Russell seems to reject 'sense'
###### 19. Language / C. Reference / 5. Speaker's Reference
 4570 Russell assumes that expressions refer, but actually speakers refer by using expressions
###### 28. God / C. Proofs of Reason / 2. Ontological Proof critique
 5773 The ontological argument begins with an unproven claim that 'there exists an x..'