Ideas from 'An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth' by Bertrand Russell [1940], by Theme Structure

[found in 'An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth' by Russell,Bertrand [Penguin 1967,-]].

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3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 7. Falsehood
Asserting not-p is saying p is false
4. Formal Logic / C. Predicate Calculus PC / 2. Tools of Predicate Calculus / e. Existential quantifier ∃
There are four experiences that lead us to talk of 'some' things
5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 4. Pure Logic
The physical world doesn't need logic, but the mental world does
5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 2. Excluded Middle
Questions wouldn't lead anywhere without the law of excluded middle
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 2. Logical Connectives / e. or
Disjunction may also arise in practice if there is imperfect memory.
A disjunction expresses indecision
'Or' expresses hesitation, in a dog at a crossroads, or birds risking grabbing crumbs
'Or' expresses a mental state, not something about the world
Maybe the 'or' used to describe mental states is not the 'or' of logic
5. Theory of Logic / L. Paradox / 6. Paradoxes in Language / c. Grelling's paradox
A 'heterological' predicate can't be predicated of itself; so is 'heterological' heterological? Yes=no!
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 1. Knowledge
All our knowledge (if verbal) is general, because all sentences contain general words
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 1. Perceptual Realism / a. Na´ve realism
Na´ve realism leads to physics, but physics then shows that na´ve realism is false
12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 1. Empiricism
For simple words, a single experience can show that they are true
12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 5. Empiricism Critique
Perception can't prove universal generalisations, so abandon them, or abandon empiricism?
20. Action / C. Motives for Action / 3. Acting on Reason / b. Intellectualism
A mother cat is paralysed if equidistant between two needy kittens