Ideas from 'Necessary Beings' by Bob Hale [2013], by Theme Structure
[found in 'Necessary Beings' by Hale,Bob [OUP 2013,9780198748038]].
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1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 1. Nature of Metaphysics
19275

You cannot understand what exists without understanding possibility and necessity

2. Reason / D. Definition / 6. Definition by Essence
19291

A canonical defintion specifies the type of thing, and what distinguish this specimen

4. Formal Logic / D. Modal Logic ML / 7. Barcan Formula
19297

The two Barcan principles are easily proved in fairly basic modal logic

19301

With a negative free logic, we can dispense with the Barcan formulae

5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 7. SecondOrder Logic
19296

If secondorder variables range over sets, those are just objects; properties and relations aren't sets

5. Theory of Logic / C. Ontology of Logic / 4. Logic by Convention
19289

Maybe conventionalism applies to meaning, but not to the truth of propositions expressed

5. Theory of Logic / H. Proof Systems / 4. Natural Deduction
19298

Unlike axiom proofs, natural deduction proofs needn't focus on logical truths and theorems

6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 6. Logicism / c. Neologicism
19295

Add Hume's principle to logic, to get numbers; arithmetic truths rest on the nature of the numbers

7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 5. Supervenience / a. Nature of supervenience
19281

Interesting supervenience must characterise the base quite differently from what supervenes on it

7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 7. Facts / c. Facts and truths
19278

There is no gap between a fact that p, and it is true that p; so we only have the truthcondtions for p

9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 5. Composition of an Object
19302

If a chair could be made of slightly different material, that could lead to big changes

10. Modality / A. Necessity / 3. Types of Necessity
19290

Absolute necessities are necessarily necessary

19286

'Absolute necessity' is when there is no restriction on the things which necessitate p

19288

Logical and metaphysical necessities differ in their vocabulary, and their underlying entities

10. Modality / A. Necessity / 6. Logical Necessity
19285

Logical necessity is something which is true, no matter what else is the case

19287

Maybe each type of logic has its own necessity, gradually becoming broader

10. Modality / C. Sources of Modality / 1. Sources of Necessity
19282

It seems that we cannot show that modal facts depend on nonmodal facts

10. Modality / C. Sources of Modality / 6. Necessity from Essence
19276

The big challenge for essentialist views of modality is things having necessary existence

19293

Essentialism doesn't explain necessity reductively; it explains all necessities in terms of a few basic natures

19294

If necessity derives from essences, how do we explain the necessary existence of essences?

10. Modality / E. Possible worlds / 1. Possible Worlds / a. Possible worlds
19279

What are these worlds, that being true in all of them makes something necessary?

10. Modality / E. Possible worlds / 1. Possible Worlds / e. Against possible worlds
19299

Possible worlds make every proposition true or false, which endorses classical logic

18. Thought / C. Content / 6. Broad Content
19300

The molecules may explain the water, but they are not what 'water' means
