Ideas from 'works (all lost)' by Carneades [174 BCE], by Theme Structure

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1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 3. Philosophy Defined
Carneades' pinnacles of philosophy are the basis of knowledge (the criterion of truth) and the end of appetite (good) [Cicero]
3. Truth / B. Truthmakers / 10. Making Future Truths
Future events are true if one day we will say 'this event is happening now'
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 6. Identity between Objects
Carneades denied the transitivity of identity [Chisholm]
10. Modality / A. Necessity / 3. Types of Necessity
Carneades distinguished logical from causal necessity, when talking of future events [Long]
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 6. Determinism / a. Determinism
Some actions are within our power; determinism needs prior causes for everything - so it is false [Cicero]
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / f. Self interest
Carneades said that after a shipwreck a wise man would seize the only plank by force [Tuck]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 1. Social Justice
People change laws for advantage; either there is no justice, or it is a form of self-injury [Lactantius]