Ideas from 'works (all lost)' by Carneades [174 BCE], by Theme Structure

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1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 3. Philosophy Defined
Carneades' pinnacles of philosophy are the basis of knowledge (the criterion of truth) and the end of appetite (good)
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 6. Identity between Objects
Carneades denied the transitivity of identity
22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 9. Selfishness
Carneades said that after a shipwreck a wise man would seize the only plank by force