Ideas from 'The Fixation of Belief' by Charles Sanders Peirce [1877], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Philosophical Writings of Peirce' by Peirce,Charles Sanders (ed/tr Buchler,Justus) [Dover 1940,0-486-20217-8]].

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1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 6. Against Metaphysics
Metaphysics does not rest on facts, but on what we are inclined to believe
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 4. Aims of Reason
Reason aims to discover the unknown by thinking about the known
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 3. Anti-realism
If someone doubted reality, they would not actually feel dissatisfaction
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 4. Belief / c. Aim of beliefs
A mere question does not stimulate a struggle for belief; there must be a real doubt
We want true beliefs, but obviously we think our beliefs are true
The feeling of belief shows a habit which will determine our actions
We are entirely satisfied with a firm belief, even if it is false
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 2. Pragmatic justification
We need our beliefs to be determined by some external inhuman permanency
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 4. Foundationalism / b. Basic beliefs
Demonstration does not rest on first principles of reason or sensation, but on freedom from actual doubt
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 1. External Justification
Doubts should be satisfied by some external permanency upon which thinking has no effect
13. Knowledge Criteria / D. Scepticism / 6. Scepticism Critique
Once doubt ceases, there is no point in continuing to argue
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 6. Natural Kinds / b. Defining kinds
What is true of one piece of copper is true of another (unlike brass)
27. Natural Reality / C. Biology / 3. Evolution
Natural selection might well fill an animal's mind with pleasing thoughts rather than true ones
28. God / C. Proofs of Reason / 4. Pascal's Wager
If death is annihilation, belief in heaven is a cheap pleasure with no disappointment