Ideas from 'A Theory of Universals' by David M. Armstrong [1978], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Properties' (ed/tr Mellor,D.H. /Oliver,A) [OUP 1997,0-19-875176-1]].

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8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 1. Nature of Properties
Properties are universals, which are always instantiated
8. Modes of Existence / D. Universals / 2. Need for Universals
Universals explain resemblance and causal power
8. Modes of Existence / E. Nominalism / 3. Predicate Nominalism
It doesn't follow that because there is a predicate there must therefore exist a property
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 4. Type Identity
The type-token distinction is the universal-particular distinction
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 5. Self-Identity
A thing's self-identity can't be a universal, since we can know it a priori