Ideas from 'Substance' by David Wiggins [1995], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Philosophy: a Guide Through the Subject' (ed/tr Grayling,A.C.) [OUP 1995,0-19-875157-5]].

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8. Modes of Existence / A. Relations / 4. Formal Relations / c. Ancestral relation
An ancestral relation is either direct or transitively indirect
8. Modes of Existence / C. Powers and Dispositions / 4. Powers as Essence
Substances contain a source of change or principle of activity
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 4. Individuation / e. Individuation by kind
We never single out just 'this', but always 'this something-or-other'
Sortal predications are answers to the question 'what is x?'
A river may change constantly, but not in respect of being a river
Sortal classification becomes science, with cross reference clarifying individuals
If the kinds are divided realistically, they fall into substances
Secondary substances correctly divide primary substances by activity-principles and relations
'Human being' is a better answer to 'what is it?' than 'poet', as the latter comes in degrees
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 2. Substance / d. Substance defined
We refer to persisting substances, in perception and in thought, and they aid understanding
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 3. Matter of an Object
Matter underlies things, composes things, and brings them to be
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / k. Explanations by essence
The category of substance is more important for epistemology than for ontology
Naming the secondary substance provides a mass of general information
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 4. Objectification
Seeing a group of soldiers as an army is irresistible, in ontology and explanation