Ideas from 'Natural Science (lost)' by Diogenes (Apoll) [440 BCE], by Theme Structure

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1. Philosophy / B. History of Ideas / 2. Ancient Thought
Diogenes of Apollonia was the last natural scientist
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 7. Indiscernible Objects
Each thing must be in some way unique
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 2. Self-Evidence
Start a thesis with something undisputable
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 6. Inference in Perception
Perception must be an internal matter, because we can fail to perceive when we are preoccupied
26. Natural Theory / A. Concepts of Nature / 2. Natural Purpose
Diogenes of Apollonia offered the first teleological account of cosmology
26. Natural Theory / A. Concepts of Nature / 5. Ultimate Substance / a. Ultimate substances
Everything is ultimately a variation of one underlying thing
27. Natural Reality / B. Early Matter Theories / 3. Ancient Elements
Things must retain their essential nature during change, or mixing would be impossible
Plants and animals can only come into existence if something fixes their species