Ideas from 'Natural Science (lost)' by Diogenes (Apoll) [440 BCE], by Theme Structure

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1. Philosophy / B. History of Ideas / 2. Ancient Thought
Diogenes of Apollonia was the last natural scientist [Simplicius]
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 7. Indiscernible Objects
Each thing must be in some way unique
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 2. Self-Evidence
Start a thesis with something undisputable
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 6. Inference in Perception
Perception must be an internal matter, because we can fail to perceive when we are preoccupied [Theophrastus]
26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 2. Natural Purpose
Diogenes of Apollonia offered the first teleological account of cosmology [Robinson,TM]
26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 6. Early Matter Theories / c. Ancient elements
Plants and animals can only come into existence if something fixes their species
Things must retain their essential nature during change, or mixing would be impossible
26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 6. Early Matter Theories / e. Ultimate substances
Everything is ultimately a variation of one underlying thing
Air is divine, because it is in and around everything, and arranges everything