Ideas from 'The Principles of Chemistry' by Dmitri Mendeleev [1870], by Theme Structure

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27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / i. Modern matter
Mendeleev saw three principles in nature: matter, force and spirit (where the latter seems to be essence)
27. Natural Reality / B. Chemistry / 2. Modern elements
Elements don't survive in compounds, but the 'substance' of the element does
27. Natural Reality / B. Chemistry / 3. Periodic Table
Mendeleev focused on abstract elements, not simple substances, so he got to their essence
Mendeleev had a view of elements which allowed him to overlook some conflicting observations