Ideas from 'On Nature (frags)' by Empedocles [453 BCE], by Theme Structure

[found in 'Empedocles: the Extant Fragments' by Empedocles (ed/tr Wright,M.R.) [Bristol Classical Press 1981,1-85399-482-0]].

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7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 7. Reason for Existence
Nothing could come out of nothing, and existence could never completely cease
7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 1. Nature of Change
Empedocles says things are at rest, unless love unites them, or hatred splits them
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 6. Nihilism about Objects
There is no coming-to-be of anything, but only mixing and separating
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 10. Beginning of an Object
Substance is not created or destroyed in mortals, but there is only mixing and exchange
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 3. Subjectivism
One vision is produced by both eyes
18. Thought / A. Modes of Thought / 1. Thought
For Empedocles thinking is almost identical to perception
26. Natural Theory / A. Heart of Nature / 1. Nature
'Nature' is just a word invented by people
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / d. Elements in general
All change is unity through love or division through hate
If the one Being ever diminishes it would no longer exist, and what could ever increase it?
The elements combine in coming-to-be, but how do the elements themselves come-to-be?
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / e. Greek elements
Empedocles said that there are four material elements, and two further creative elements
Empedocles says bone is water, fire and earth in ratio 2:4:2
Fire, Water, Air and Earth are elements, being simple as well as homoeomerous
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 2. Movement
Love and Strife only explain movement if their effects are distinctive
27. Natural Reality / C. Biology / 3. Evolution
Maybe bodies are designed by accident, and the creatures that don't work are destroyed
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 2. Divine Nature
God is pure mind permeating the universe
God is a pure, solitary, and eternal sphere
29. Religion / B. Polytheistic Religion / 2. Paganism
It is wretched not to want to think clearly about the gods
29. Religion / F. Problem of Evil / 1. Problem of Evil
Empedocles said good and evil were the basic principles