### Ideas from 'Philosophical Logic: Intro to Advanced Topics' by Engelbretsen,G/Sayward,C [2011], by Theme Structure

#### [found in 'Philosophical Logic: Intro to Advanced Topics' by Engelbretsen,G/Sayward,C [Continuum 2011,978-1-4411-1911-7]].

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###### 4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 1. Aristotelian Logic
 13912 Aristotle replace Plato's noun-verb form with unions of pairs of terms by one of four 'copulae'
 13913 The four 'perfect syllogisms' are called Barbara, Celarent, Darii and Ferio
 13914 Syllogistic logic has one rule: what is affirmed/denied of wholes is affirmed/denied of their parts
###### 4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 2. Syllogistic Logic
 13915 Syllogistic can't handle sentences with singular terms, or relational terms, or compound sentences
###### 4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 3. Term Logic
 13916 Term logic uses expression letters and brackets, and '-' for negative terms, and '+' for compound terms
###### 5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 4. Pure Logic
 13850 In modern logic all formal validity can be characterised syntactically
###### 5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 6. Classical Logic
 13849 Classical logic rests on truth and models, where constructivist logic rests on defence and refutation
###### 5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 4. Identity in Logic
 13851 Unlike most other signs, = cannot be eliminated
###### 5. Theory of Logic / K. Features of Logics / 5. Incompleteness
 13852 Axioms are ω-incomplete if the instances are all derivable, but the universal quantification isn't