### Ideas from 'Philosophical Logic: Intro to Advanced Topics' by Engelbretsen,G/Sayward,C [2011], by Theme Structure

#### [found in 'Philosophical Logic: Intro to Advanced Topics' by Engelbretsen,G/Sayward,C [Continuum 2011,978-1-4411-1911-7]].

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###### 4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 1. Aristotelian Logic
 13914 Syllogistic logic has one rule: what is affirmed/denied of wholes is affirmed/denied of their parts
 13912 Aristotle replace Plato's noun-verb form with unions of pairs of terms by one of four 'copulae'
 13913 The four 'perfect syllogisms' are called Barbara, Celarent, Darii and Ferio
###### 4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 2. Syllogistic Logic
 13915 Syllogistic can't handle sentences with singular terms, or relational terms, or compound sentences
###### 4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 3. Term Logic
 13916 Term logic uses expression letters and brackets, and '-' for negative terms, and '+' for compound terms
###### 5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 4. Pure Logic
 13850 In modern logic all formal validity can be characterised syntactically
###### 5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 6. Classical Logic
 13849 Classical logic rests on truth and models, where constructivist logic rests on defence and refutation
###### 5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 4. Identity in Logic
 13851 Unlike most other signs, = cannot be eliminated
###### 5. Theory of Logic / K. Features of Logics / 5. Incompleteness
 13852 Axioms are ω-incomplete if the instances are all derivable, but the universal quantification isn't